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Full text of "Bewick gleanings : being impressions from copperplates and wood blocks, engraved in the Bewick workshop ..."

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Bewick Gleanings 



Impressions 



Copperplates and Wood Blocks, 

p:xgraved IX the bewick workshop, 

RKMAIXIXc; IX THE POSSESSION OF THE FAMILY UNTIL THE DEATH OF THE LAST 
MISS BEWICK, AND SOLD AFTERWARDS BY ORDER OF HER EXECCTORS. 



EDITED, WITH XOTES, 

By JULIA BOYD, 

Memb. of the Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle ; The Westmorland and Cum'jerlanh Soc. 

The Harleian Soc. ; etc. 

TO WHICH A HE ADDED, 

LIVES OF THOS. BEWICK AXD HIS PUPILS, 

With Impressions from other Wood Blocks Collected rv or lent to the Avthok. 




PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY ANDREW REID, 
Printing Coirt Biildings, Akenside Hill, Newcastle-vpon-Tvne. 

1886. 










^^ 'ij5j*u(^_;T^rii-^r^tfl^Sii3r.»(i^ 










(From the Bewick Sale, 230.) 

Zo in^ jf^atber, 

WHO l.\ HIS CHILDHOOD KNEW THOMAS BF.WICK ; 

I\ HIS BOYHOOD ROAMED BY THE RIVERS THEY BOTH LO\'KD, 

AND IX MANHOOD DELIGHTED 

TO SKETCH THE NORTHERN SCENES AMIDST WHICH THEY WERE BORN 

WHC)SE FIRST PRESENT TO HIS CHILD WAS A COPY 

OF BEWICK'S WORKS ; 

AND WHO HAS NEVER CEASED TO DIRECT HER TIIOCGHTS 

TO NATURE, AND THE ART THAT 

POURTRAYS IT, 



THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED. 



Mr. D. C. Thomson, in opening his chapter on "Hints to Bewick Col- 
lectors,'' very truly says : — 

''As in the case of many works of genius, especially in the world of art, it is Jiffii nil 
for many people at the first to appreciate the worth of Bewick's engravings. Some are disap- 
pointed that they are not more ' important,' both in size and subject ; others think that the}- 
are not so good as much work that is commonly performed for our modern illustrated papers ; 
while others prefer etchings, or engravings, or any other of the methods invented to reproduce 
works of art. It is only after some acquaintance with the wealth of Bewick's invention, the 
a.:curacy of his delineations, the beauty of his compositions, and the other innumerable 
attractions of his works, that the strength of his power is understood. When this acquaintance 
has been prolonged — and to do so is worth some trouble, when the repayment is so rich— then 
hi^ master-hand cannot fail to be recognised, his talent appreciated, his humour understood, and 
his genius applauded ; while the intelligent observer forthwith becomes a ' Bewick Collector.' '' 

Mr. Thomson also remarks : — 

"It is said that Bewick was paid only nine shillings each for several of the engravings 
in the 1784 Fables ; but, possibly, he found he could make a small profit even out of this— it 
could not have been a large one — as he had so many to execute at once, and comparative leisure 
to do them at spare times. A block of similar size and subject would not be taken in hand 
nowadays at less than three or four guineas, and at this price we should have the cheapest, 
commonest, unpleasantest work imaginable. Bewick may onl}' have recei\'cd the paltry sum 
named, yet the labour he gave in return was not to be had for payment of any kind : a genius 
may receive wages, but his labours confer honour on whatever his hand touches, and repay in 
years to come mtire real \'alue than money can equal. Saint might have ]iaid a thousand 
pounds for his series of blocks to one of the engravers of the day then considered at the head 
of his profession, and now they would have been entirely forgotten. No money could insure 
the purchase of the gems for which he paid so triHing a sum, yet they give the book a reni'wn 
sure to last as long as Bewi.k is recognised as the revolutioniscr of wood engraving in England." 



PRE FA CE. 




PREFACE. 



This volume is published by the Editor from a feeling that 
Bewick students may like in after years to have a permanent 
record of the " aftermath " of that remarkable workshop 
wherein was wrought so much interesting work at the end 
of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries. 
Thomas Bewick served his time with Ralph Beilbv, and 
afterwards entered into partnership with him. His brother, 
John Bewick, with Robert Johnson, Luke Clennell, Charlton 
Nesbit, Isaac Nicholson, William Harvey, John Jackson, and 
many others, became his apprentices. Eventually, his son, 
Robert Elliot Bewick, was taken into partnership with him, 
and carried on the business after his father's retirement until 
his own death in 1849. ^s Robert Elliot was unmarried, and 
left no partner, the business then ceased. The drawings, 
blocks, copperplates, and other materials, however, which 
had formed the stock-in-trade of the establishment, remained 
in the hands of his sisters, whose loving veneration for their 
father's memory caused them to preserve everything he had 
possessed with the most intelligent care. These venerable 
ladies attained respectively the ages of 93 and 94, surviving 
until the years 1881 and 1883. 



PREFACE. 



In 1880, a Bewick exhibition was held by the Fine Art 
Society in New Bond Street, London, to which the Misses 
Bewick kindly lent many of the treasures held by them ; 
then, for the first time, the London public realized the fact 
that Thomas Bewick had been an exquisite painter in water- 
colours as well as a designer on wood. The interest ex- 
pressed in their father's beautiful little water-colours induced 
the Misses Bewick to present them to the British Museum, 
where they now hang on screens in the King's Library. 
These ladies had still almost unlimited treasures left, for, not- 
withstanding this gift, and the fact that they had parted with 
many valuable blocks, two of the rare impressions of the 
Chillingham Bull, on vellum, and some water-colour drawings 
to Mr. Hugo and others, they gave to Mr. Joseph Crawhall, 
of Newcastle, their father's box of tools, and they were still 
able to empower their executors to present to the Museum 
of the Natural History Society, in Newcastle, a splendid series 
of their father's drawings and designs, a portrait of himself 
and son, and his own copy of the Chillingham Bull on 
vellum, etc. 

The series of blocks used in the last editions of the 
History of Quadrupeds., British Birds., Aisofs Fables, and 
Memoirs, they had intended to have had published as a 
"Memorial Edition" by Mr. Bernard Quaritch, of London; 
but this intention they did not live to carry out. These 
blocks were sold in London by Messrs. Christie, Manson, 
& Wood. A keen competition ensued between Mr. Quaritch 
(who wished to republish them) and the Messrs. Ward, 
printers, of Newcastle, great-nephews and legatees of the 
Misses Bewick, who preferred to print them themselves. 



PREFA CE. 



This caused the price to be raised to the extraordinary 
sum of ;!^2,35o; at which amount they were knocked down to 
the Messrs. Ward. Eventually, it was arranged that the 
Messrs. Ward should print, and Mr. Quaritch should publish, 
the proposed " Memorial Edition," and the first two volumes 
of that edition are now before the public. 

Besides these books — comparatively iew in number — 
published by Bewick himself, of which the British Birds is 
confessedly the best, he and his firm were constantly engaged 
on innumerable illustrations of animals, fables, tailpieces, 
etc., for books published by other people, and in fulfilling 
orders for private gentlemen, which were always executed 
with especial care. A perfect revolution was thus effected 
in the children's books, school books, and poetry books of 
that day. Many exquisite specimens of these blocks found 
their way, after the publishers had finished with them, into 
the collections of Mr. Hugo, Mr. Jupp, Mr. Ford, Mr. Pearson, 
r3octor Smith, Miss Boyd, Mr. Robert Robinson, and others. 
But, besides these, a considerable stock of more or less inter- 
esting remnants were left in the hands of the Misses Bewick. 
Among these were copperplates executed by their father, 
to be printed from presses of his own, and never claimed by 
the people for whom they were done ; also, blocks begun and 
never quite completed, either because the wood was not suit- 
able, or some trifling improvement of position in the animal 
or design occurred to Bewick of which he longed to try the 
effect, and these are interesting as showing his work in process. 
Thev also possessed blocks executed by pupils, of which their 
father did not quite approve, and other exquisite blocks here 
and there for tailpieces 'or book-plates, which may have 



PREFACE. 



been countermanded or never claimed by the publishers and 
gentlemen for whom thev were executed,* and others that 
were possibly being prepared for some enterprising South- 
countrv bookseller who might think that he, as well as 
Davison, of Alnwick, could publish a successful little animal 
book, with "illustrations bv Bewick." 

The Editor advances this last theory with diffidence ; still, 
it is possibly a correct one, and mav account for the number 
of quadruped blocks in Miss Bewick's possession. See Note 
No. 163 on the "Bewick Sale" blocks. 

These "remainders" of copperplates and wood blocks 
were sold in Newcastle in August, 1884, bv order of the 
executors, and almost all of them, bv purchase, then or after- 
wards, came into the possession of the Editor. It is not for a 
moment pretended that all, or even a majority of them, were 
cut by Thouas Bewick. Most of the quadrupeds are plainlv 
by the pupils ; only a few, the dogs and foxes especially, bear 
evidence of Thomas Bewick's graver, and several exquisite 
little tailpieces, and manv of the copperplates, mav safelv be 
attributed to the great master's own hand. It must alvvavs be 
remembered that he seldom signed his wood blocks, and that 
he was in the habit of reproducing any especiallv favourite 
subject again and again with his own hand. In these he 
would vary sometimes little details in the background, or, 
on the other hand, he aimed sometimes at exact reproduc- 
tion, as in the case of the duplicate book-blocks cut for 
Mr. John Fenwick. 

The real interest of this volume, however, lies in the 



* As in the case of the Waggon and Horses, No. i, "Bewick Sale" 
blocks. See note on same, page 73. 



PREFACE. 



fact that it contains the last that remained unpublished of the 
works in the hands of the family, and that they all Jiiust have 
been executed under the eye and direction of Thomas Bewick 
himself. It therefore appears well to the Editor that an 
authentic reprint from the whole should be taken before their 
final dispersal, thus affording to future collectors a record of 
these copperplates and blocks, and means for their identifica- 
tion. No expense or trouble has been spared by the Editor, 
and no care or pains begrudged by the printer, to justify the 
generous confidence of the subscribers, and to prove that 
Newcastle publishers and Newcastle workmen are as well 
able now to do full and ample justice to any local work 
entrusted to their care, as in the days when Bewick employed 
them. Since the Prospectus was first issued many additions 
to the volume have been made, which, the Editor hopes, may 
be deemed valuable. 

The Editor desires to thank Mr. J. W. Pease, of 
Pendower, for permission to have an entirely new etching 
taken from an oil painting which belongs to him of " The 
Lost Child," by Ramsay. This etching, which forms the 
frontispiece to the large paper copies, has been especially 
done, in his best manner, for this work by Mr. C. O. Murray, 
who has been described by one of the highest authorities 
on art as "the first etcher of the day." Also, to the large 
paper copies have been added another portrait of Bewick 
(on steel) by Bacon, after Ramsay, said by Mr. Hugo to be 
"considered by many the best likeness ever produced," and 
a third portrait of Bewick (on steel) by Meyer, after Ramsay, 
which Mr. Hugo tells us was "said by the family of the artist 
to be a most excellent likeness and a complete success." 



xiv PREFACE. 



Fortunately, Meyer's engraving is not too large to appear in 
all the ordinary sized quarto copies. The plates of these two 
last portraits belong to the Rev. E. Pearson, of Cheltenham, 
to whom thanks are due for permitting them to appear. 

Messrs. Chatto & Windus have also enabled the Editor 
to give impressions from electrotypes of Ovingham, the 
Workshop, and the Burial Place of Bewick. Mr. Croal 
Thomson has contributed an electrotype of the small Chil- 
lingham Bull, and copies from his splendid fac-simile of 
the large Bull for the large paper copies. These are all 
the illustrations that are not taken direct from the copper- 
plates or wood blocks themselves. 

Principally through the kindness of Mr. Bailey Langhorne, 
nine original letters are here printed for the first time. 
Although to those deeply versed in Bewickian lore the Editor 
cannot hope to offer anything new (excepting perhaps what 
is contained in these letters), yet it was felt that to the 
general reader a sketch would not be deemed inappropriate 
or unacceptable of Thomas Bewick's life, and the lives of the 
pupils connected with him. These sketches the Author has 
carefully prepared, after close study and comparison of all the 
written authorities accessible, and these lives are accompanied 
by impressions from many beautiful blocks to illustrate the 
text. 

The Editor has been much encouraged in this undertaking 
by the Rev. W. J. Townsend, of Newcastle, who has most 
kindly helped in looking over the proof sheets, and by the fact 
that the splendid collection of wood blocks belonging to Doctor 
Smith have been freely and generously placed at the Author's 
disposal. To these two gentlemen her thanks are especially 



PREFACE. 



due ; and, besides those already mentioned, she would also 
wish to take this opportunity of thanking Mr. Joseph Crawhall, 
one of Miss Bewick's executors, for permission to engrave the 
tool box ; the Kev. J. R. Bovle, of Newcastle; Mr. Bolam, 
of Berwick ; Mr. Matthew Mackey, of Newcastle ; Mr. Chas. 
Lilburn, of Sunderland ; Mr. Hurrel, of Sunderland ; Mr. D. 
Croal Thomson, of London ; Mr. Ford, of Enfield ; Mr. Hugh 
Fenwick Boyd, of the Inner Temple ; Miss Gertrude Poole, 
B. A., of Cheltenham ; Doctor Howard, of Blackheath ; the late 
Rev. W. Wray, Vicar of Ovingham ; Mr. G. H. Thompson, 
of Alnwick ; Mr. Wm. Dodd, Mr. Brown, and Mr. Dinning, 
of Newcastle ; the publisher, Mr. Andrew Reid, and his 
son, Mr. Sidney Reid, and their able printers, who have all 
united in doing everything in their power to render this 
volume satisfactory to the public. The Author also wishes 
to express gratitude to those who have so kindly taken an 
interest in this publication, and generously subscribed for 
the volume before seeing the contents. 

In bringing these labours to a close, the Author would 
add that, should they prove successful, it will be owing 
to the kindness and encouragement received, and the qualitv 
of the work dealt with, rather than labours, which, earnest 
though they have been, have only helped to reveal to her 
her own want of competency for the task ; and she, there- 
fore, commits this, her first work, with all its deficiencies, 
to the indulgence of her friends and the public. 




LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LARGE PAPER COPIES. 



Ashburnham, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Ashburnham Place, Battle, Sussex. 

Abbs, H. C, Esq., Clead^n House, near Sunderland. 

Aldora, W., Esq., Trickley Hall, Doncaster. 

Anderson, Geo., Esq., Little Harle Tower, Northumberland (two copies). 

Anderson, Miss E., Long Benton Lodge, Northumberland (three copies). 

Armstrong, W., Esq., Pelavv House, Chester-le-Street. 

Ashbee, H. S., Esq., 53, Bedford Square, London, W.C. 

Ashworth, E., Esq., Egreton Hall, Bolton. 



Bradford, the Rt. Hon. The Earl of, 43, Belgrave Square, London, S.W. 

Bell, Sir Lowthian, Bart., F.R.S., Northallerton. 

Bagehot, Mrs., The Hon., Herts Hill, Langfort, Taunton. 

Bailward, T. H. M., Esq., Horsington Manor, Temple Combe, Somerset. 

Baker, Mrs. Baker, Elemore Hall, County Durham (two copies). 

Barnes, Mrs., Whitburn. 

Barron, Dr. J. W., 10, Old Elvet, Durham. 

Bates, Rev. J. E. Elliot, Milburne Hall, Northumberland. 

Belcher, Rev. E., Heather Manor House, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 

Benson, Mrs. Christopher, Wiesbaden, Germany. 

Binney, H. A., Esq., Leach Hall, St. Helens. 

Bird, Rev. C, B.A., ChoUerton Vicarage, Wall-on-Tyne. 

Blair, G. Y., Esq., D.L., Stockton. 

Blinkhorn, W. J., Esq., 31, Grove Park, Liverpool. 

Blomfield, .'\. W., Esq., M..^., C, Montague Place, Montague Square, London. 

Bourne, Rev. Dr., St. Edmund's College, Salisbury. 

Boyd, Geo. Fenwick, Esq., Whitley, Northumberland (two copies), 

Boyd, Rev. Henry, D.D., Principal of Hertford College, O.xford. 

Boyd, Hugh Fenwick, Esq., II, King's Bench Walk, Temple, London. 

Boyd, Robt. Fenwick, Esq., Moor House, County Durham. 

Boyd, William, Esq., 74, Jesmond Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bracken, W., Esq., Dee Bank, Braemar, N.B. 

Bree, Rev. Canon, M.A., AUesley Rectory, Coventry, Warwick. 

Bruckie, W., E^q., C2, Olive Street, Sunderland. 

Brodie, J. C, Esq., 26, Moray Place, Edinburgh. 

Brown, Miss, Claremont House, Gateshead. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Blown, Mr. W., Bookseller, 26, Princes Street, Edinburgh (three copies). 

Bruce, Rev. J. CollingAvood, LL.D., D.C.L., F.S.A., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bulman, H. F., Esq., West Rainton, Fence Houses. 

liulteel, J., Esq., Pamplete, Ivy Bridtje, Devon, 

Rumpus, Mr. J'., Bookseller, O.'cford Street, London (three copies). 

Hurdon, Rev. John, M.A., The Castle, Castle Eden. 

Coey, Sir E., Knight, Merville, Belfast. 

Cooke, Sir W. R. C, Bart., Wheatley Park, Doncaster. 

Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., K.C.M.G., 6, De \^ere Gardens, Kensington, London, W. 

Corbet, Sir Vincent R., Bart., Acton Reynald, Shrewsburj-. 

Carr, Rev. C. Blackett, Norham-on-Tweed. 

Chadwick, R., Esq., Edgecliff House, Double Bay, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Chapman, Captain A. H., J. P., Belle Vue, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

Cheney, F-. H., Esq., Gaddesby Hall, Leicester. 

Clark, W., Esq., Cranbury Lodge, Park Lane, ^Vigan. 

Clarke, Jas., Esq., Christian TTor/i^ Office, 13, Fleet Street, London. 

Cooke, L, Esq., Wilthew's Lane, Liscard. 

Cornish-Bowden, Vice-.\dmiral, Oak Lawn, Newton Abbot, Devon. 

Cornish, Mr. J. F.., 16, St. Ann's Square, Manchester (five copies). 

Cosser, Mrs. Wilson, 5, Westbourne Square, London. 

Cowen, Jos., Esq., M.P., Stella Hall, Blaydon-on-Tyne. 

Crawford, T., Esq., Littletown, Durham (two copies). 

Devonshire, His Grace The Duke of, Devonshire House, Piccadilly, London. 

Davidson, R. S., Esq., M.R.C.S., Newburn-on-Tyne. 

Davies, W., Esq., Bridge End House, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

Deighton, Bell, & Company, Messrs., Cambridge. 

Dinsdale, J., Esq., 50, Cornhill, London. 

Dodds, F. L., Esq., Ragworth Hall, Stockton-on-Tees. 

Donaldson, Rev. S. A., M.A., Eton College, Eton. 

Douglas, C. P., Esq., Consett, County Durham. 

Drummond, D., Esq., M.D., 7, Saville Place, Newcastle-upon-T}-ne. 

Egmont, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Cowdray Park, Midhurst. 

Eastwood, J. E., Esq., Enton, Godalming, Surre}-. 

Edwards, F. L., Esq., Nanhoron, Pwllheli, Carnarvon. 

Embleton, T. W., Jun., Esq., 13, Old Bank Chambers, Park Row, Leeds. 



Falmouth, The Rt. Hon. Viscount, 2, St. James' Square, London, S.W, 
Favell, T. JL, Esq., The Grove, Etruria, Stoke. 
Fenwick, Dr., Chilton Hall, Ferryhill. 
Fidler, Mrs., Croft House, St. Bees. 



Fisher, F., Esq., Abbotsbury, Newton Abbot, South Devon. 

Forster, Jos., Esq., 21, Boundary Roiid, London. 

F'owler, Jas., Esq., Manor House, Durham. 

F'urse, Rev. Canon, I, Abbey Gardens, Westminster, London. 

Ciarnett, Professor \V., M.A., D.C.L., Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Ty[ie. 

Gaskell, Captain J. B., Hill Cliff, Woolton, Liverpool. 

Gibb, C. J., Esq., M.D., Westgate Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Gordon, Major-General, Guernsey. 

(Jorman, Rev. T. JF., Invermore, Woodstock Road, 0-xford. 

Gray, Mrs. E., Westward House, Ryton-on-Tyne. 

Greenwell, G. C, Esq., Duffield, Derby. 

Grey, Mrs., Milfield, Wouler. 

Hargrove, Rev. C, 8, .Montpelier Terrace, Leeds, 

llaslewood, Rev. ¥. G., LL.D., Chislet \'icarage, Canterbury. 

Hawks, Mrs., 2, Ashford Villas, Cheltenham. 

Henderson, Mrs., Leazes House, Durham. 

Heppell, T., Esq., Leafield House, Birtley. 

Higgin, W. PL, Esq., O.C., Springfield Hall, Lancaster. 

Hilton, R. J., F^sq., B..\., Pi-eston House, Faversham. 

Hitchman, Mr. Jos,, Birmingham. 

Hodges, Figgis, & Company, Messrs., 104, Grafton Street, Dublin (three copies). 

Holden, Mr. .A., 48, Church Street, Liverpool. 

Holiday, H., Esq., Oak Tree House, Brand Hill, Hampstead, London, N.W. 

Hopper, C, Esq., Monk End Terrace, Croft, 

Howard, Geo., F2sq., ALP., Naworth Castle, Brampton, 

Hurt, A, F., Esq., J. P., D.L., Alderwasley, Derby. 

Hutton, T. G., Esq., No. 3, The Cedars, Sunderland. 

Hedley, Wm., Beech Grove, near Chester-le-Street (two copies'). 

Jervis White Jervis, Mrs., Feli.xstowe, Ipswich. 

Johnston, T., F^sq., Sea Flouse, Scremerston. 

Jones, T., F'sq., Oueen Street, Durham. 

Kesteven, The Rt, Hon, The Lord, Casewick, Stamford. 
Kavanagh, G., Flsq., 7, Gresham Terrace, Kingston. 
Kelly, Mrs, .\dmiral, Saltford House, Saltford, Bath, 
Kirkley, Jas., F^sq., 41, King Street, South Shields. 



Leconfield, The Rt. Hon. Lord, cj, Chesterfield Gardens, London, W, 
Lambton, The Hon. H., 47, Flaton Place, London, S.W. 
Lingen, Sir R. W., K.C.B., 6, Westbourne Crescent, London, W, 
Langlands, Miss, 4, Strathcarn Place, Edinburgh (two copies). 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Laws, Hubert, Esq., Ryton-on-Tyne. 

Lees, J., Esq., Clarkesfield, Oldham. 

Lees, J. E., Esq., Oldham. 

Lewis, W. T., Esq., Aberdare. 

Lister, J., Esq., Rockwood House, I Ik ley. 

Lloyd, Mrs. E., Lingcroft, York. 

Lloyds, W., Esq., 5. Red Lion Passage, Fleet Street, London. 

Longridge, J. A., Esq., 15, St. George Street, Westminster, London, S.W. (two copies). 

Lord, J., Esq., 5, Hampton Terrace, Brighouse, York. 

Lorentzen, Rudolf, Esq., Fern Lea, South Boldon. 

Losh, W. S., Esq., AVoodside, Carlisle. 

Lovell, J., Esq., Mercury Office, Liverpool. 

.Macpherson-Grant, Sir G., Ban., .ALP., Ballindalloch Castle, Elgin, Banffshire, N.B. 

Milbank, Sir F. A., M.P., Bart., Thorp Perrow, Bedale, i';ri .\orthallerton. 

Mackie, R. B., Esq., M.P., Wakefield. 

ilacnab, Robt., Esq., Bury St. Edmunds. 

.Main, Mr. D. M., 18, Exchange Square, Glasgow. 

Marshall, H. JL, Esq., I, Victoria Mansions, Westminster, London. 

Melrose, Jas., Esq., Clifton Croft, York. 

Morris, W., Esq., Waldridge, County Durham. 

Mortimer, Jno., Esq., South House, EUand. 

-Morton, H. T., Esq., Biddick Hall, I-'ence Houses. 

Nelson, H., Esq., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Free Library. 

Newton, Ed., Esq., 85, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde Park, London. 
Nimmo, T. C, Esq., 12, Hillfield, Deptford, Sunderland. 
Norcliffe, Rev. C. B., .M.A., Langton Hall, Malton. 

Percy, The Rt. Hon. Earl, .Mnwick Castle (two copies). 

Portman, The Rt. Hon. Viscount, Bryanston, Blandford. 

Pape, Miss Helena, Moor House, Leamside. 

Parrington, W., Esq., 58, Cannon Street, London. 

Peace, M. W., Esq., Ashfield, Standish, Wigan (two copies). 

Pease, J. W., Esq., Pendower, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Peele, R., Esq., The College, Durham. 

Philipson, J., Esq., .M.I.M.E., 9, X'ictoria Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Ridley, Sir M. W., Bart., .M.P., Blagdon, Northumberland. 

Reid, Sidney, Esq , Park Terrace, North Road, Newcastle-upon-T}'ne (two copies). 

Reid, W. B., Esq., Cross House, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Ridley, ^L W., Esq., 10, Notting fliU Terrace, London, W. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Robertson, C. D., Esq., Washingley, Peterborough. 
Robertson, G. C, Esq., Widmerpool Hall, Nottingham. 
Robinson, D. B. J., Esq., The Thorne, Penrith. 
Robson, T., Esq., Lumley Thicks, Fence Houses. 
Rodger, G., Esq., Michaelson Villa, Barrow-in-Furness, 
Rogers, Rev. Dr., Roxwell Vicarage, Chelmsford. 
Rogerson, Jno., Esq., Croxdale Hall, Durham. 
Ross, Hj'., Esq., Chestham Park, HenfielJ, Sussex. 

Stair, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Oxenford Castle, Dalkeith, X.B. 
Scott, G., Esq., 55, Shield Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Sidebottom, J., Esq., F.S.A., etc., Erlesdene, Bowdon, Cheshire. 
Smith, Rev. J. W., Dinsd.ale Rectory, Darlington. 
Smith, W. J., Esq., 4i, North Street, Brighton. 
Spence, R., Esq., North Shields. 

Stephenson, Rev. Prebendary, Lympsham Manor House, Somerset. 
Stockdale, T., Esq., i6, Denvent Street, Sunderland. 
Sutherland, J. R., Esq., West Rainton, County Durham. 

Tate, Miss, Southend, Durham. 

Taylor, Hugh, Esq., Chipchase Castle, Wark-on-T3-ne. 

T.iylor, J., Esq., Glenbuck House, Surbiton, London. 

Thompson, T. C, Esq., Ashdown Park, Forest Row, Sussex. 

Thring, Rev. E., School House, Uppingham. 

Townsend, Rev. \V. J., 20, Oxford Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Walker, J. W., Esq., 14, York Road, Birkdale, Soulhport. 

Westmacott, Percy, Esq., Benwell Hill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Weston, W. J., Esq., Spring Street, Sydney, New South Wales (two copies). 

Wharton, H. T., Esq., M.A., 39, St. George's Road, Kilburn, London, N.W. 

Wilson, L N., Esq., The Oaks, Sunderland. 

AViper, W., Esq., 8, Rock Terrace, Higher Broughton, Manchester (two copies). 

AVood, Collingwood L., Esq., Freelands, Forgandennj-, N.B. 

Wood, Lindsay, Esq., The Hermitage, Chcster-le-Street. 

Wood, T., Esq., Fortis House, Muswell Hill, London. 

W'oodhouse, W. H., Esq., I, Hanover Square, London. 



YouU, J. G., Esq., 91, Jesmond Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Young, C. G., Esq., Netherlands Consul, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Younf, J. R., Esq., 20, Windsor Terrace, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



XXI 



SMALL PAPER COPIES. 



Arundel of Wardour, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Wardour Castle, Tisbury, \Yilts. 

Acock, Mr. J. A., Bookseller, 21, Broad Street, Oxford. 

Adams, Prof. J. C, Observatory, Cambridge. 

Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

Alexander, J. W., Esq., Post Office Chambers, Middlesbro', 

Atkinson Free Library, Southport (three copies). 

Atkinson, T. L., Esq., II, Hill Road, St. John's Wood, London. 

Beauchamp, The Rt, Hon. The Earl, 13, Belgrave Square, London, S.W. 

Backhouse, C. J., Esq., St. John's, Wolsingham, Darlington. 

Baker, Rev. W. J. F. V., xM.A., The College, Marlbro'. 

Baring-Gould, Rev. S., ^LA., Lew Trenchard, N. Devon. 

Barnsley, A., Esq., 3, Liver Chambers, Liverpool. 

Becke, Rev. J. H., M A., Wallington, Oakhill Park, Liverpool. 

Bendelow, llr. W., Bookseller, 92, Duke Street, Barrow. 

Benson, G. R., Esq., Langtons, Alresford, Hants. 

Bewick, T. J., Esq., Haydon Bridge. 

Boulton, B., Esq., The Bank House, Bishop Auckland. 

Boyd, The Van. Archdeacon, M..\., Arncliffe Vicarage, Skipton, Yorkshire. 

Bracken, W., Esq., Dee Bank, Braemar, X.B. 

Braithwaite, G.F., Esq., Hawesmead, Kendal. 

Brown, Mrs., Tostock Place, Bury St. Edmunds. 

Bruce, Gainsford, Esq., Q.C., 2, Framlington Place, i\ewcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Bruce, G. H., Esq., Sand Lodge, Shetland Isles. 

Bumpus, Mr. J., Bookseller, 0.\ford Street, London (four copies). 

Cranipton, Sir J. F., Bart., K.C.B., Bushey Park, Enniskerry, County Wicklow. 

Calmady, V. P., Esq., Tetcott, Holsworthj-, X. Devon (two copies). 

Cattley, Rev. A., Repton, Burton-on-Trent. 

Central Free Librar)-, Sheffield. 

Chapman, J. B., Esq., Percy House, Durham. 

Cheetham, The \'en. Archdeacon, Rochester. 

Chichester, The Very Rev. Dean of. Deanery, Chichester. 

Cleghorn, J., Esq., 3, Spring Gardens, London, W. 

CoUingwood, F. J. W., Esq., Glanton Pyke, Alnwick. 

Compton, Rev. W. C, M.A., LTppingham, Rutland. 

Cornish Bros., Messrs., Birmingham. 

Cornish, Mr. J. E., 16, St. Ann's Square, JIanchester (three copies). 

Cowen, Jos., Esq., M.P., Stella Hall, Blaydon-on-Tyne. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Cox, Ed., Esq., Dundee. 

Cox, Jas., Esq., D.L., J. P., Clement Park, Dundee (two copies). 
Crewdson, E., Esq., Abbot Hall, Kendal (two copies). 
Crossley, J., Esq., 19, Union Street, Halifax. 

De Table}', The Rt. Hun. Lady, Tabley House, Knulsford, Cheshire. 

Darnell, Rev. William, St. Leonards. 

Davenport, E. H., Esq., 92, St. George's Square, London, S.W. 

Dayman, Rev. Canon, Shillingstone Rectorv, Blandford. 

Deighton, Bell, & Co., Messrs., Cambridge (two copies). 

Douglas, T. J., Esq., AUonby House, Workington. 

Driver, Rev. Dr., Oxfoid. 

Dunn, ^L, Esq., 17, Lovaine Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Edlman, F. J., Esq., 3, Xew Broad Street, London. 

Embleton, Dennis, Esq., M.D., 4, Eldon Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (two copies). 

Erskine, David, C E., Esq., Linlathlen Broughty Ferry, N.B. 

Foley, Rt. Hon. Lady Emily, Stoke Edith Park, Hereford. 
Fayrer, Sir Jos., K.C.S.L, LL.D., M.D., F.R.S. 
Ffytche, J. L., Esq., F.S.A., Thorpe Hall, Elkington. 
Fitzherbert, Miss, Tifiington Hall, Ashbourne, Derb3-shire. 
Foot, J. T., Esq., iS, Poland Street, Londnn, W. 
Friends' Book Society, Kendal. 

Grant, Mr. J., 25, George I\^. Bridge, Edinburgh. 
Gray, Miss JL, Westward House, Ryton-on-Tyne. 
Grey Mrs., Milficld, Woolen 

Hamilton, Sir R. N. C, Bart., K.C.B., Avon Cliff, Stratford-on-.\\on, Warwickshire. 

Hope, Sir J. D., Bart., Pinkie House, Musselburgh. 

Hadow, Miss, 18, Southwick Street, Cambridge Square, Hyde Park, Lnndun. 

Harbottle, W., E«q., 3, Hcene Terrace, Worthing, Sussex. 

Hedley, AV H., Esq., .Medomsley, County Durham. 

Hewlett, W. O., Esq., jg, Sutherland Gardens, London, W. 

Heywood, A. H., Esq., Ellerey, Windermere. 

Hillyard, Rev. T., Okeford, Bampton, near Devon. 

Hineks, Mrs., Sen., Otterington House, Northallerton. 

Hitrhman, Mr. Jos., Bookseller, 53, Cherry Street, Birniinghani. 

Hoare, Jos., Esq., Child's Hill House, Hampstcad. 

Hoare, Rev. J. S., Godstone Rectory, Surrey. 

Hodges, Figgis, & Co., Messrs., I04, Grafton Street, London (t«o copies). 

Holden, Mr. A., 48, Cliurch Street, Liverpool. 

Holmes, R. H., I'^sq., 54, Ryehill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Z/.SV OF SrnSCRIBERS. 



Hdlmes, W. H., Esq., Wellbiirn, Jesmond, Xewcastle-upoii-Tj'ne. 
Howard, Geo., Esq., M.P., Naworth Castle, Brampton. 
Hume, A., Esq., D.C.L., 3, Shaw Street, Liverpool. 
Hunt, Miss, Birtley House, Chester-Ie-Street. 

Inthbold, S., Esq., Dove Villa, Garden Lane, London. 

Jackson, T. G., Esq., 11, .\ottinc;ham riace, London. 
Jarratt, Rev. Canon, North Cave, Brough, Yorkshire. 

Kinnear, Mrs. W. Balfour, Burton Rectorj', near Lincoln. 

Legge, Rt. Hon. Lady Caroline, Forest Lodge, Keston, Bromlc}', Kent. 

Llanover, Rt. Hon. Lad}', Llanover, Ahergavenn)', South \\'alcs. 

Lambert, Capt., F.S.A., 12, Coventry Street, London. 

Lambton, Mrs. Dawson, The Node, Welwj-n, Herts. 

Langlands, Miss, Edinburgh. 

Leader, B. W., Esq., A.R.A., Worcester. 

Lloyd, ]Mr-^. E., York (two copies). 

Logan, AV., Esq., Langley Park, Durham. 

Main, Mr. D. JL, 18, Exchange Square, Glasgow ("four copies). 

Marks, H. Stacej', Esq., R.A-, 17, Hamilton Terrace, St. John's Wo. .J, London, .\.\\'. 

Martin, Robt. F., Esq., Anstey Pastures, Leicester. 

McCuUoch, W., E'sq., 26, Hackham Road, London. 

Mounsey, E. B., Esq., Bank, Darlington. 

Murray-Aynsley, Admiral, C.B., Hall Court, Botley, Hants. 

Newton, Jliss Ann, Ryton-on-Tyne. 

Nicholson, Rev. S. T., Springhead, Lees, Oldham. 

Norman, Jno., Esq., Rotherby, Carlisle. 

Oswald, Lady, Souihbank, Edinburgh. 

Orde, W., t:sq., The Firs, Stralton, Cirencester. 

Portman. The Rt. Hon. Viscount. 

Peek, Sir H. W., Bart., 20, Eastcheap, London, E C. 

Paget, T. T., Esq., M.P., Humberstone, Leicester. 

Papillon, Rev. J., Le.xden Rectory, Colchester. 

Pearson, H. G., Esq., Barrow-in-Furness. 

Perrin, Rev. L., Blarney, County Cork. 

Philipson, J., Esq., JLLM.E., g, Victoria Square, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Poole, Mrs., 21, Lansdown Crescent, Cheltenham. 

Price, H. R., Esq., Down Lodge, Epsom. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Ramsiiy, J. A., Esq., Thornle)' House, Trimdon Grange. 

Robertson, Rev. A., Hatfield Hall, Durham. 

Robinson, J., Esq., 6, Choppington Sueet, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



Scarbrough, The Rt. Hon. The Countess of, Lumley Castie, County 

Scarbrough, The Kt. Hon. The l-^arl of, Sandbeck Park, Rotherham. 

Stafford, Sir I'^. \V., K.C.M.G., 4S, Stanhope Gardens, South Kensin: 

Sample, T , Esq., Matfen, i\'e\vcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Scarborough Philosophical Sociel\'. 

Scorer, A., Esq., 29, Gloucester Street, Xewcastle-upon-Tyne, 

Scott, Rev. Canon, \'ic.arage. New Seaham, Sunderland. 

Shields, J., Esq., AVestern Lodge, Durham. 

Signet Librarj', Edinburgh. 

Skeat, Rev. Prof., 2, Salislairy \'illas, Cambridge. 

Smith, W., Esq., 31, Esk Terrace, Whitby (two copies). 

Southern, Rev. T., Glenhow, Saltburn. 

Stark, J. E., Esq., Hebburn. 

Steward, JMrs., Bowes House, Fence flouses. 

Stockton-on-Tees Free Library. 

Stone, Miss, 3, St. George's Fields, Canterbury. 

Sullivan, Admiral Sir B. J., Tregew, Bournemouth. 



Durham, 
'ton, S.W. 



Trevelyan, Lady, Wallington, Northumberland. 

Townsend, Miss E., 5, Lovaine Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Townsend, Rev. W. J., Ncwcastle-U|ion-Tyne. 

Waddilove, Miss, 1(5, Chalmers Crescent, Edinburgh. 

Wallis, C;., Esq., F.S.A., 4, The Residences, South Kensington, London. 

Watson, T. C, Esq., 16, Bewick Road, Gateshead. 

West, T., Esq., S, Princes Terrace, Darlington. 

Weston, 'W. J., Esq., Spring Street, Sj'dncj', New South Wales (three cojiies). 

Wilkinson, Rev. W. II., Hensingham Mcarage, Whitehaven. 

\Villis-Bund, Esq., M.A., 3, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, London. 

Wilson, Mr. T., Aynam Lodge, Kendal. 

Woodd, B. T., Esq., Conyngham Hall, Knaresboro'. 

Woodman, W., Esq., East Riding, Morpeth. 

■\Voolner, T., Esq., R..-\., :g, Welbeck Street. Cavendish Square, London. 

Wright, Rev. G. Howard, 11, Clanricarde Gardens, Bayswater, London, \V. 



Veatman, .Mrs., Stoke Gaylard House, Sherborne, Dorsets. 



Part I, 



ERRATA 



PART I. 
Page 27, fourth line, for " North Tyjie," read " South Tyne." 

Page 32, foot-note. "Andrew Mills' stob." The Author finds that this entry alludes to a gibbet, 
near Ferryhill, County Durham, part of which was still remaining at the time 
of Bewick's visit, whereon was hung, in the year 16S4, a man named Andrew 
Mills, for the murder of his master's children. — See Sykes' Local Records. 

Page 52, third line, /)?■ "J. Bewick" read " T. Bewick." 

Page 52, in foot-note, for "father of the Lady Bloomfield," read "grandfather," and for 
"grandfather of the present Earl of Ravensworth," read "great-grandfather." 

P^?s 55) in foot-note, for "Thomas Hodgson, Esq.," read "John Hodgson, Esq." 

Page 74, first line, for "water-colour study," read " oil study." 

Pages 73 and 106. Isaac Nicholson and William Nicholson. The Author regrets having 
confused together these two distinct artists. Isaac Nicholson, the wood 
engraver, and pupil of Thos. Bewick, was not a portrait painter. William 
Nicholson (whom Redgrave informs us, was born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
in 1784, and died in Edinburgh, 1844,) was a portrait painter, and one of the 
founders of the Royal Scottish Academy. Mr. Wm. Dodd remembers William 
Nicholson, and says he was a friend of Charnley the bookseller, as well as Mr. 
Bailey and Thos. Bewick. Nicholson painted for Charnley the Bewick 
portrait now in the possession of Mr. T. E. Crawhall, and from which he 
has recently had an etching taken by Leopold Flameng. 

PART II. 
Page g6, Plate XV'II., for "Rev. E. H. Adamson " read "John Adamson, Esq." 




' '^'''■"^■^v Km-'. 



■^"ir,, SbfiTitr il''.'-'' " 



ulp' 



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J 



BIRTH AND PARENTAGE. 



Life of Thomas Bewick. 



" O now that the genius of Bewick were mine, 
And the sl<iU which he learned on the Banks of the Tyne ! 
Then the ATuses might deal with me just as they chose, 
For I'd take my last leave both of verse and of prose. 

What feats would I work with my magical hand ! 

Book-learning and books should be banished the land : 

And for hunger and thirst and such troublesome calls, 

Every ale-house should then have a feast on its walls." — WoKDSWORTH, 

in his L)Tical Ballad of The Two Thieves.^ or the 
Last Stage of Avarice. 



CH--\PTER I. 

Thomas Bewick, afterwards destined to become the reviver of wood-cutting, 
and the greatest wood engraver of his day, was born in the year 1753, at 
Cherryburn, a house situated ahnost midway between Newcastle and Hexham, 
on the southern bank of the Tyne, and overlooking that river. 

He was descended from the northern yeomanry, a race hardy in con- 
stitution, independent in thought, resolute and determined in action, grave in 
manner, slow in speech, though full of humour, and with a directness that goes 
straight to the point. They are shrewd, withal, and have an eye to their own 
interests, and their bearing has a kind of rough dignity that, whilst it com- 
mands respect and speaks of self-respect, is willing to concede respect to 
others. A habit of thoughtful reflection, with strength of body and strength 
of mind, dogged perseverance, tenderness of feeling, a little obstinacy, and a 
great deal of pride are the natural results of such an ancestry ; and such, in 
an eminent degree, were the characteristics of Thomas Bewick to the end of 
his days. Love of his own people and his native Tyneside seems to have been 
engrained in his very being. It was, therefore, a wise and wholesome instinct 
which led him to quit the Metropolis, where ambition had led him to try his 
fortune, and where others assured him he could alone attain professional fame. 
He returned* with a determination to achieve it at home, or at any rate to live 
his own life, and work his own way, among his own people. His bones were 

• Years after his return home he wrote to his friend Phil. Gregson praying him to " lap up" 
and leave London, adding "for my part I am still of the same mind that I was when I left 
London, and that is / would rather lie herding sheep on Micilev lank top than remain in London, 
although for doing so I was to be made premier of England." — Memoirs of T. Bewick, by himself. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



ultimately laid in the parish where he was born, among the kindred whom he 
loved, and under the shadow of the church where he had played many a mis- 
chievous prank, and the belfry in which he was once locked up as a punishment 
for his boyish misdemeanours. 

Thomas was the eldest of a large family. His father, and grandfather 
before him, had farmed lands and held a small "landsale"* colliery near their 
home at Cherry burn. Pitmen were employed to work the coal, and Thomas as 
a boy seems to have enjoyed pla3'ing practical jokes upon them. He generally 




Cherrybukn, Bewick's Bujth-place. 

From an electrutype, after ii drawing by his pupil, 
John Jacl<son, 183S. 

worked on their fear of seeing ghosts, a fear very prevalent at that day in the 
North of England, and one from which he himself does not seem to have been 
altogether free.f His grandfather, he tells us, "had the character of being one 



* TItat is to say, one worked on a small scale to supply the neighbourhood, not in a larjje 
way fur export ; the coals being sold at the pit's mouth and carted away, not consigned to agents 
at the sea ports. 

f " The stories so circumstantially told respecting these phantoms and supernatural things 
1 listened to with the dread they inspired, and it took many an effort, and I suffered much, before 
it could be removed. What helped me greatly to conquer fears of that kind was my knowing 
that my father constantly scouted such idle, or indeed, such pernicious tales. He would not allow 
me to plead fear as any excuse when he had to send me an errand at night ; and, perhaps, my 
being frequently alone in the dark, might have the effect of making me rise superior to such 
weakness." — Manoirs. 



HIS FATHER. 




of the most intelligent, active, and best farmers on Tyneside, and it was said 
that by his good management and great industry he became very rich ; but, 
except his being an expert angler, I know little more about him." 

His father was a man of the same stamp, and much respected amongst his 
neighbours, but, perhaps, also a little feared. His son says : " In person he was 
a stout, square made, strong and active man, and through life was a pattern of 

health." He used to "won- 
der how folks felt when 
they were ill. He was of 
a cheerful temper, and he 
possessed an uncommon 
vein of humour, and a 
fimd of anecdote. He was 
much noticed by the gentle- 
men and others of the 
neighbourhood for these 
qualities, as well as for his 
integrity." He seems to 
have been rather severe 
with his son, but this per- 
haps was necessary as the 
lad was spirited and full of 
mischief. At any rate he 
succeeded in inspiring the 
boy with wholesome re- 
spect as well as affection 
for him. Thomas grew up 
to love his home, his father, 
and his mother with an 
ever-increasing regard; and 
week after week, as long as the old people lived, he never failed to turn his 
steps to«'ards Cherryburn, and spend some part of the week-end by their fire- 
side in their company. 

John Bewick, his father, was a young childless widower, when he met 
Jane Wilson, who afterwards became his second wife. She was born in 1727, 
and was the daughter of Thomas Wilson, a respectable man who lived at 
Ainstable, in Cumberland. Whether the latter was curate or parish clerk 
his grandson tells us he does not know. This much is certain, however, 
that he kept a school there and taught his sons, and his daughter Jane. 



(From the Bewick Sale, 215.) 
Colliery and Keels on Tvnesii>e. 

The same desiojn as at page 14S, British Birds, \'ol. II., 
where it may be found beneath the notice of the Coot. This 
little scene is thoroughly characteristic of Thomas Bewick's 
feeling for Tyneside. The hall is very like Close House, 
which stands on the opposite side of the river, not far from 
Cherryliurn, and is the seat of his namesake, Mr. Bewick. 
The colliery might be his father's own collier}' at Mickley, or 
Wylam where George Stephenson was born, for both are near 
Close House. The "staith," or staging from which waggons 
of coals are tipped into the keels, and tiie keel itself stranded 
in the foreground, must have been amongst the earliest 
objects familiar to his eye. A keel is a great, wide, fiat- 
bottomed boat — black, as befits its occupation of carrying 
coals down the Tyne to be shipped at Shields. The old 
north country song and well-known air, " Weel may the keel 
row,'" is characteristic of the keelmen, who are a race possessing 
habits and customs of their own." 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



Latin ; when he died, and his eldest son, Christopher, succeeded to his small 
freehold property — a house and some fields, his daughter turned her education 
to good account. For a time she was adopted by Mrs. Gregson, of Appleby, 
a distant relative, but she soon found occupation as housekeeper to the Rev. 
Christopher Gregson,* vicar of Ovingham, and master of a school attended 
by many boys in that neighbourhood. 




OVINGHAM-ON-TVNE. 

From an electrotype, after a drawing by his pupil, 

John Jackson, in 1838. 



Jane soon proved herself invaluable to her master, not only in his domestic 
but also in his professional affairs, being, on occasion, able to hear the boys 
say their Latin lessons. At Ovinghamf she married John Bewick, in 1752, 
antl went tn live with him on the opposite side of the river, at Cherryburn. 
In August, I 753.1 their eldest child, Thomas, the subject of this memoir, was 
born. In infancy he seems to have been much spoilt by his paternal grand- 
mother, Agnes Bewick, § and it was perhaps, in consequence of this, that 
he was sent, when very 3-oung, to Mickley school, not so much with a view to 
learning as to keep him out of " harm's way." There he seems to have 

* See liis portrait. No. 208 Bewick sale blocks. 

t Where the register of her marriage still exists. 

X Baptised. 

§ " My grandmother's maiden name was Agnes Arthur, the daughter of a laird of that name, 
at Kirkheaton, at which ])lace my father was born, in the year 1715, while his mother was there (1 
believe^ on a visit to her friends." — Memoirs. 



HIS SCHOOL DAYS. 



made but little progress. The master being harsh and severe, and without 
any faculty for teaching, until at last little Thomas broke out in open 
rebellion, and systematically played truant. Fortunately, the ne.xt master, 
James Burn, was a man of different mould. ''With him," he says, ''I was 
quite happy, and learned as fast as any other of the boys, and with as great 
pleasure." On his death a short time afterwards, Thomas was '' put to school," 
as he expressed it, under the care of his mother's old friend and master, the 
Rev. C. Gregson, of Ovingham, and now for the first time he began to show 
signs of his future talent. He says : — 

"Well do I remember tlie conversation that passed between them* on the occasion. It 
was little to my credit ; for my father began b}' tellingf him that I was so very unc^iiidable that 
he could net manage me, and he begged of mj- new master that he would undertake that task, and 
thej' both agreed that 'to spare the rod was to spoil the child.' This precept was, I think, too severely 
acted upon, sometimes upon trivial occasions, and sometimes otherwise. I was for some time 
kept at reading, writing, and figures — how' long I know not; but I know that as soon as my 
question was done upon my slate, I spent as much time as I could find in filling with my pencil 
all the unoccupied spaces, with representations of such objects as struck mj' fancy, and these were 
rubbed out, for fear of a beating, before my question was given in. As soon as I reached 
fractions, decimals, &c., I was put to learn Latin, and in this I was for some time complimented 
by my master for the great progress I was making ; but, as I never knew for what purpose I had 
to learn it, and was wearied out with getting off long tasks, I rather flagged in this department of 
m}' education, and the margins of my books, and every space of spare and blank paper, became 
filled with various kinds of devices or scenes I had met with ; and these were accompanied with 
wretched rhymes e.xplanatory of them. As soon as I filled all the blank spaces in my books, I had 
recourse, at all spare times, to the gravestones and the floor of the church porch, with a bit of chalk, 
to give vent to this propensity of mind of figuring whatever I had seen. At that time I had never 
heard of the word 'drawing;' nor did I know of any other paintings besides the King's Arms in 
the church, and the signs in Ovingham of the Black Bull, the White Horse, the Salmon, and the 
Hounds and Hare. I always thought I could make a far better hunting scene than the latter: 
the others were beyond my hand. I remember once of my master overlooking me while I was very- 
busy with my chalk in the porch, and of his putting me very greatly to the blush by ridiculing 
and calling me a conjurer. My father, also, found a deal of fault for ' misspending my time in such 
idle pursuits ; ' but m}' propensity for drawing was so rooted, that nothing could deter me from 
persevering in it; and many of my evenings at home were spent in filling the flags of the floor 
and the hearth-stone with my chalky designs. After I had long scorched my face in this way, a 
friend, in compassion, furnished me with some paper upon which to execute my designs. Here I 
had more scope. Pen and ink, and the juice of the bramblcberry, made a grand change. These 
were succeeded b)' a camel-hair pencil and shells of colours; and, thus supplied, I became 
completely set up ; but of patterns or drawings I had none. The beasts and birds which enlivened 
the beautiful scenery of woods and wilds surrounding my native hamlet, furnished me with an 
endless supph' of subjects. I now, in the estimation of my rustic neighbours, became an eminent 
painter, and the walls of their houses were ornamented with an abundance of my rude productions, 
at a very cheap rate. These chiefly consisted of particular hunting scenes, in which the portraits of the 
hunters, the horses, and of every dog in the pack, were, in their opinion, as well as my own, faith- 
fully delineated. But while I was proceeding in this way, I was at the same time deeply engaged in 
matters nearl}- allied to this propensity for drawing, for 1 early became acquainted, not only with 
the history and the character of the domestic animals, but also with those which roamed at large. 
The conversations of the Nimrods of that day, in which the instincts and peculiar properties of 
the various wild animals were described in glowing terms, attracted my keenest attention; and to 
their rude and lengthened narratives I listened with extreme delight. With me they made a 
winter's evening fly fast away. At holiday times, and at other times, when prevented by the 
floods of the Tyne from getting across to school, 1 was sure, with the most ardent glee, to make 



* His father and Mr. Gregson. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



one of the number in the hunting parties which frequently took place at that time; whether it 
might be in the chase of the fox or the hare, or in tracing the foumart in the snow, or hunting the 
badger at midnight. The pursuing, baiting, or killing, these animals, never at that time struck 
me as being cruel. The mind had not as yet been impressed with the feelings of humanity. This, 
however, came upon me at last; and the first time I felt the change happened by my having (in 
hunting) caught the hare in my arms, while surrounded by the dogs and the hunters, when the 
poor terrified creature screamed out so piteously — like a child — that I would have given anything 
to have saved its life. In this, however, I was prevented ; for a farmer, well known to me, who 
stood close by, pressed upon me, and desired J would 'give her to him;' and from his being 
better able (as I thought) to save its life, 1 complied with his wish. This was no sooner done 
than he proposed to those about him 'to have a bit more sport with her,' and this was to be done 
by first breaking one of its legs, and then again setting the poor animal off a little before the dogs. 
I wandered away to a little distance, oppressed by my own feelings, and could not join the crew 
again, but learned with pleasure that their intended victim had made its escape." —JA?»t?//-5. 

A few pages further on Bewick tells us the second incident which de- 
veloped the humane feelings of his kind heart. He says :— 

"J have before noticed that the first time that I felt compassion for a dumb animal was 
my having caught a hare in my arms. The next occurrence of the kind happened with a bird. 
I had no doubt knocked many down with stones before, but they had escaped being taken. 
This time, however, the little victim dropped from the tree, and I picked it up. It was alive, 
and looked me piteously in the face ; and, as I thought, could it have spoken, it would have 
asked me why I had taken away its life. I felt greatly hurt at what I had done, and did not 
quit it all the afternoon. I turned it over and over, admiring its plumage, its feet, its bill, and 
every part of it. It was a bullfinch. I did not then know its name, but I was told that it was 
a 'little Matthew iMartin.' This was the last bird I killed, but many have been killed since on 
my account." — Menioijs. 

Many other incidents show us how rapidly the character of the boy, 
vigorous, earnest, and observant, was being developed by the happy combin- 
ation of circumstances around him. 

" The first time I took notice of any of my female school-fellows arose from a reproof I 
met with, and the manner it was given, from one of them. The amiable person alluded to was 
Miss Bett)' Gregson, my preceptor's daughter, and somewhere about my own age. She kept a 
messet dog, and the sleek, fat, useless animal was much disliked by me, as well as by some of the 
other boys. When it made its appearance in the church-yard, which it sometimes did, we set 
about frightening it ; and, for this purpose, some of us met it at every gate and outlet, and 
stopped its retreat till it became quite distressed. The last time that this kind of sport was 
practised on the little dog I happened to be the only actor. Having met with it at a little distance 
from its home, I had stopped it from entering the house, and had pursued it about and about, or 
met it at the end of every avenue, till it was put into gieat ' bodily fear.' This behaviour towards 
her little favourite was very offensive to Miss Gregson. She could endure it no longer, and she 
called me to account for it. I can never forget her looks upon the occasion. She, no doubt, 
intended to scold me, but the natural sweetness of her disposition soon showed itself in its true 
colours. She did not know how to scold ; for, after some embarassing attempts at it, and some 
hesitation, she put me in mind of my being related to her, and of her uniform kindness to me, 
and with irresistible arguments and persuasions, made me see the impropriety ol my conduct. 
With me this left its mark, for, from that time forward, I never plagued any of the girls at 
school, nor did anything that might give them offence ; nor has this impression ever been eflaced 
from my mind, but has been there fostered through life and settled into a fixed respect and 
tender regard for the whole sex. 

"The 'musical din' of the hounds still continued to have its charms, and I still continued 
to follow them ; but from that day forward, I have ever wished that this poor, persecuted, 
innocent creature* might escape with its life. The worrying of foxes, the baiting ol foumarts, 
otters, badgers, &c., did not awaken in me similar feelings, for in the fierce conflicts between 



• The hare. 



HIS SCHOOL DAYS. 



them and the dogs there was something like an exchange of retaliation, and not unfrequently the 
aggressors were beaten ; and I have with pleasure seen that wondcrt'uUy courageous animal, the 
badger (with fair play), beat the dogs of a whole neighbourhood, one after another, completely off. 

"In the vermin hunting excursions in the depth of n-inter, while the whole face of nature 
was bound in frost and covered with deep snow, in traversing through bogs, amidst reeds and 
rushes, I have often felt charmed with the sight of birds, flushed, and sometimes caught, by the 
terrier dogs, which I had never seen or heard of before, and I am still in doubt whether some of 
them have not escaped being noticed as British birds. ......... 

" These were the diversions of the winter months, which I enjoyed in an extreme degree, 
amidst the storm and the tempest. ............ 

"At that time of life every season has its charms, and I recollect well of listening with 
delight, from the little window at my bed-head, to the murmuring of the flooded burn which 
passed m}^ father's house, and sometimes roused me from my bed to see what it was like. 

"The winter evenings were often spent in listening to the traditionary talcs and songs re- 
lating to men who had been eminent for their prowess and bravery in the border wars, and of others 
who had been esteemed for better and milder qualities, such as their having been good landlords, 
kind neighbours, and otherwise in every respect bold, independent, and honest men. I used to 
be particularly affected with the warlike music, and with the songs relative to the former descrip- 
tion of characters, but with the songs regarding the latter, a different kind of feeling was drawn 
forth, and I was greatly distressed, and often gave vent to it in tears. These songs and ' laments' 
were commemorative of many worthies ; but the most particular ones that I now remember were 
those respecting the Earl of berwentwater, who was beheaded in the year 1715, and was looked 
upon as having been a victim to the cruelty of the reigning family, and who was venerated as a 
saint upon earth. It was said that the light from heaven attended his corpse to the vault at 
Dilston Hall, and that prosperity would shine no more on Tyneside. 'Then followed the 
sorrowful remembrances of those that were dead and gone. To sigh over them were unavailing; 
they had filled the space allotted to them on this side of Time, and the winds had blown over 
their silent graves for ages past. The predictions that the mansions of those that remained 
would soon for want of heirs* be desolate — these, and such like reflections, made a deep impression 
on my mind ; and I have often since, with feelings of extreme regret, beheld these mansions, 
once the seats of hospitality, dilapidated, and the families which once occupied them, extinct and 
forgot ten . " — Memoirs. 

This profound feeling of romantic regret for the " Good Earl " continued 
with him through life. In 1884, more than a hundred years after the time 
when he wept those boyish tears for the Earl's sad fate, Bewick's blocks and 
plates were sold, and it was found that he had bought and treasured up the 
copperplate of that rare engraving of old Dilston Hall, his beloved Earl's 
home, which was taken in 1760, before it was pulled down. The verses of 
the lament are' beneath. Prints from it being very rare, the Editor, into 
whose possession the plates passed, has had some struck off, as being likely to 
interest the readers of Dorothy Forstcr. 

Thomas now began to make himself useful to his father, especially on 
those stormy days when the winter floods rendered the river impassable, and 
he could not cross by the ferryboat to Mr. Gregson's school at Ovingham. 

Then it was that he found employment in struggling through snow drifts 
to the Fell.t with a bundle of hay on his back, and his pockets filled with oats. 
These he used to distribute amongst a flock of sheep, which had the sagacity 

* These predictions have been fulfilled in the Fenwicks of Bj-vvell, Erringtons of Beaufront, 
and Fosters of Edderston, dying out, and their possessions passing into the hands of others. 

f Fells are wide stretches of high moorland country affording rough pasturage for sheep. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



almost always to seek shelter under a steep, low " brae " overhung with whins, 
where he used to find them huddled close together to keep each other warm ; 
and he would spend some time in collecting the sprouts from the whin bushes, 
in the evening " creeing " them with a wooden " mell " in a stone trough, until 
they were beaten to the consistency of soft wet grass, and with this provender 
he used to feed the horses, with whom it agreed so well that they soon became 
sleek, and cast their winter coats earlier than horses fed in the ordinary 
manner. Cows, on the contrary, preferred ivy, and even small ash twigs. 
Sometimes he cleaned out the " byre "* and milked the cows; Avatching, mean- 
while, the birds that congregated about the door, and feeling extreme pleasure 
when the rarer visitants, such as the woodcock and snipe, redwings and field- 
fares, made their appearance. Bewick tells us : — 

"From the little window at my bed-head I noticed all the varying seasons of the year, and 
when spring put in, I felt charmed with the music of birds, which strained their little throats to 
proclaim it. The chief business imposed upon me as a task at this season was my being set to 
work to 'scale' the pastures and meadows, that is, to spread the mole-hills over the surface of the 
earth." — Memoirs. 

Fishing rods, fishing tackle, and night lines also occupied his attention, 

and as he was devotedly fond of angling, he busied himself late and early with 

them throughout the summer, being tempted often to remain out so late that 

his parents often became alarmed. Is not the following picture he gives us 

graphic ? One can almost see his father's figure standing out, lone and 

shadowy, in the summer night ; and hear the sound of his whistle, ringing out 

of the stillness, and echoing up the valley and down by the river, till the boy, 

catching it, sends an answer faintly back again, and a look of relief steals over 

his father's face as the welcome sound falls on his listening ear : — 

" The uneasiness which my late evening wadings by the waterside gave to my father and 
mother I have often since reflected upon with regret. They could not go to bed with the 
hopes of getting to sleep while haunted with the apprehension of my being drowned ; and 
well do I remember to this day my father's well-known whistle, which called me home. lie 
went to a little distance from the house, where nothing obstructed the sound, and whistled so 
loud through his finger and thumb that, in the still hours of evening, it might be heard 
echoing up the vale of the Tyne to a very great distance. This whistle I learned to 
imitate, and answered it as well as I could, and then posted home." — Memoirs. 

We hear constantly of pieces of boyish mischief ; and one day when he 
and some of his class-fellows had been locked up in the belfry in disgrace, they 
amused themselves by pulling one another up and down to the first floor by 
the bell ropes, until at last, letting a rope slip from their hands, the boy 
holding on to it was precipitated to the ground, and seriously hurt. We have 
many other glimpses of Ovingham Church, where his father took him to the 
services on Sunday, and on those occasions he used to employ himself by 
drawing figures on the soft, painted book-board with a pin. And as he still 

* Cowhouse. 



HIS SCHOOL DAYS. 



continued to incur punishment, and the floggings began to lose their effect, 
Mr. Gregson hit upon the plan of locking him up alone in the church cm week 
days, after school hours, until dusk, and he tells us the solitarv confinement 
was very — 

" Irksome to me, as I had not at that time g-ot over a belief in ghosts and bog-^'es, for the 
sight of which I was constantly upon the look-out. Oppressed with fear I peeped here and 
there into every corner, in dread of seeing some terrible spirit. In time, however, this abated, 
and I amused myself, as well as I could, in siirvej-ing the surrounding objects, and in climbing 
up the pillars, with the help of a rope or a handkerchief, as I used to do in getting up large trees. 
It happened one evening when my master, as usual, came to let me out, that I was sitting astride 
upon the capital of one of the pillars where he did not see me. He called on me, but I made no 
answer, and he then posted off to see if the door was fast, and having ascertained that it was, he 
marched along the aisles in great perturbation of mind, frequently exclaiming, 'God bless me !' 
&c. When he was gone. I slipped down, and I found the choir door only bolted on the inside, 
so I waded the river and posted home, and slept in my old asylum, the hay loft. I have 
frequently bitterly repented of having given a man I afterwards so highly respected through life 
so much pain and trouble. .............. 

" Hitherto my life at school and at home might be considered as a life of warfare, and 
punishments of various kinds had been inflicted upon me, apparently with little effect. As a 
cure for my misdeeds, my worthy master, however, at length found out a better and more effectual 
way. He one day invited me to dine with him, and after showing me the greatest kindness, he 
followed this up in a friendly, plain, and open wa)', by remonstrating with me on the impropriety 
of my past conduct, the evil tendency of it, and the pain and trouble it had given him, urcrinf 
me, at the same time, in such a persuasive tone, instantly to desist from it, that I felt quite over- 
powered with his discourse, and fell into a flood of tears. The result was, I never dared to 
encounter another of these friendly meetings, and while I remained at his school he never again 
had occasion to find fault with me. 

"The transactions in which I afterwards became engaged afforded me more real enjoyment. 
As silent time stole away in the varied seasons of the long-measured }-ears, changes gradually 
took place in man}' of the erroneous notions I had formed of things. As the mind became more 
expanded, curiosity led me to enquire into the nature of the objects which attracted mj' attention. 
Among the first was that of birds, their nests, their eggs, and their young. These to me were 
long a source of great delight, and many a spring morning I watched and looked after them. I also 
spent many a summer evening, on my way home from school, lost in wonder in examining the 
works going forward among a nation of ants." — Memoirs. 

His observations on these ants are minute and interesting, and he goes 
on to speak of the habits of bees, and the experiment he tried on a large spider, 
which he managed to draw into contest with a wasp. But his schoolboy days 
were drawing rapidly to a close, and the time approaching when he must 
begin the serious business of life. His own simple and graphic account is as 
follows : — 

" Being now nearly fourteen years of age, and a stout boj', it was thought time to set me off 
to business ; and my father and mother had long been planning and consulting, and were greatly 
at a loss what it would be best to fix upon. Any place where 1 could see pictures, or where I thought 
I could have an opportunity of drawing them, was such only as I could think of. A New- 
castle bookseller, whose windows were filled with prints, had applied to Mr. Gregson for a boy, 
and when I was- asked if I would like to go to him, I readily expressed my hearty consent; but, 
upon my father making enquiries respecting him, he was given to understand that he bore a very 
bad character, so that business was at an end. The same year (1767), during the summer, William 
Beilby and his brother, Ralph, took a ride to Bywell to see their intimate acquaintance, Mrs. 
Simons, who was my godmother, and the widow of the late Vicar there. She gave them a most 
flattering account of me, so much so that the}', along with her and her daughter, set off that same 
afternoon to Cherr3-burn to visit us, and to drink tea. When the Newcastle visitors had given 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



an account of their enamellings, drawings, and engravings, with which I felt much pleased, I 
was asked which of these 1 should like to be bound to. Liking the look and deportment of 
Ralph the best, I gave the preference to him. Matters bearing upon this business were slightly 
talked over, and my grandmother having left me twenty pounds for an apprentice fee, it was 
not long till a good und^-rstanding between parties took place, and I soon afterwards went to 
R. Beilby upon trial. The fir;t of October was the day fixed upon for the binding. The eventful 
day arrived at last, and a most grievous one it was to me. I liked my master ; I liked the 
business; but to part from the country, and to leave all its beauties behind me, with which I 
had been all my life charmed in an extreme degree — and in a way I cannot describe — I can only 
say my heart was like to break, and as we passed away, I inwardly bade farewell to the whinny 
wilds, to Mickley Bank, to the Stob-rross Hill, to the water banks, the woods, and to particular 
trees, and even to the large, hollow old elm which had lain perhaps for centuries past on the 
haugh, near the ford we were about to pass, and which had sheltered the salmon fishers, while 
at work there, from many a bitter blast. We called upon my much esteemed schoolfellow, 
Christopher Gregson, at Ovingham, where he and his father were waiting to accompany us to 
Newcastle, all on the same errand. We were both bound on that day. While we were condoling 
— comforting each other — I know not what to call it — at the parsonage gates many of the old 
neighbours assembled at the churchyard wall to see us set off, and to express their good wishes; 
and amongst the rest was a good, sensible old woman of the village, named Bett}' Keli, who 
gave us her blessing, and each a penny for good luck. This being done, our horses were mounted, 
and we commenced our journey. The parties kept at a little distance from each other. I 
suppose our late preceptor was lecturing his son, and my father was equally busied in the same 
way with me. He had alwaj's set me the example, and taken every opportunity of showing 
how much he detested meanness, and of drawing forth every particle of pride within me for the 
purpose of directing it in the right way. He continued a long while on subjects of this kind, 
and on the importance and inestimable value of honour and honesty, and he urgently pressed 
upon me to do my duty to my master in faithfully and obediently fulfiiling all his commands, to 
be beforehand in meeting his wishes, and, in particular, to be always upon my guard against 
listening to the insinuations and the wicked advice of worthless persons, who I would find ever 
ready to poison my ear against him. He next turned his discourse on another topiic, new to me 
from him, of great importance — religion, and pressed this also upon me in a way I did not forget. 
He begged I would never omit, morning and evening, addressing myself to my Maker, and said 
if I ceased to do so then he believed and feared every evil would follow. I was greatly surprised 
to hear him dwell on this subject, for I think it was the first time. 

"When we arrived at Newcastle the documents were soon made ready to bind my com- 
panion and myself, but Mr. Beilby (perhaps from his haying heard some unfavourable account 
of me) and my father not readily agreeing upon the exact terms of my servitude, some fears were 
entertained that the business between us might be broken off. On this occasion my preceptor 
interfered very ardently, spoke warmly in my praise, and dwelt forcibly, in particular (not- 
withstanding my wild, boyish behaviour at school), upon my never being sauc}' or sulky, nor in 
the least indulging in anything like revenge, f n this btisiness Mr. Gregson was ably seconded 
by his relation, and my kind friend, Mr. Langstaff, of Newcastle, who was also ac(|itainted with 
my new master, and so the business of binding was settled at last." — Mnnoirs. 

Very soon after Thomas arrived in Newcastle, an insult, one Sunday 
afternoon, on the part of three low apprentice^, led his natural pugnacity to 
assert itself, and he levelled one of them to the ground, whereupon, 
the whole three falling mercilessly upon him, he returned to the house with 
black eyes and in a condition altogether shocking to the Beilby family. 
His new master, although only 24 years of age, was a rigid disciplinarian, 
and from that time forth lie had, every Sunday, to accompany him 
twice to church, and spend the evening in reading the Bible to old 
Mrs. Beilby and her daughter. His master's workshop stood at Amen 
Corner, opposite the south porch of St. Nicholas' Church, and not far from 



HIS APPRENTICESHIP. 



the head of the Side* and the Black Gatef of the Castle. Its site is now 
occupied by a tall corner pile of red brick oflices, and was in the centre of the 
busy town. One can fancy how the boy's heart died within him, after the free 
life he had been living in the open country, at the thought of being "cooped, 
cabined, and confined " in the dusty street, and close workshop. Indeed, after 
a time, his health seems to have suffered, and his master called in a doctor. 
Like a sensible man, Dr. Bailes enquired into his habits, found he was sitting 
at too low a bench in the workshop and, fascinated with the love of knowledge, 
had plunged too eagerly into reading as his sole recreation in leisure moments. 
He pointed out the first error to Mr. Beilby in rather severe terms, and to the 
bo}' himself the necessity of exercise. 

" He also took great pains to direct me how tn live and to manage myself under so 
sedentary an empluymcnt ; and an intimacy commenced between us which lasted as long as he 
lived. He urged upon me the necessity of temperance and exercise. I then began to act upon 
his advice, and to live as he directed, both as to diet and exercise. I had read Lewis Cornaro, 
and other books which treated of temperance ; and I greatly valued the advice given in the 
Spectator, which strongly recommended all people to have their days of abstinence. Through 
life I have experienced the uncommon benefit derived from occasionally pursuing this plan, which 
alw,ay5 keeps the stumach in proper tuiie. I regularly jiursued my walks, and whilst thus exer- 
cising, my mind was commonly engaged in devising plans for my conduct in life. For a long 
time, both in summer and winter, I went to Elswick three times a day, at the expense of a penny 
each time for bread and milk. I had an hour allowed me for dinner, and as to my mornings and 
evenings, I could take a much longer time. A very small matter of animal food when I missed 
going to Elswick was amply sufficient for me, for I think my constitution did not require to be 
stimulated. By persevering in this sj'stem of temperance and exercise, I was astonished to find 
how much 1 improved in health, strength, and agility. I thought nothing of leaving .Xewcastle 
after I had done work — 7 o'clock — on a winter's night, and of setting off to walk to Cherryburn. 
In this I was stimulated by an ardent desire to visit my parents as often as possible ; and the 
desire continued to act upon me as long as they lived." — Memoirs, 

The business to which he was apprenticed was a very multifarious one, 
consisting of every branch of the engraver's art, from the manufacture of door- 
plates, sword-blades, and clock-faces, to seal engraving, die sinking, shop cards 
and bar bills, heraldic devices on silver plates, coffin plates, and mournmg 

* The Side is a steep and narrow street, with ancient over-hanging houses, where the 
Newcastle merchants used to live in bygone days. It leads up into the town from the Sandhill 
and the old Bridge and Quay, whence, on a November night, in the year of grace 1772, 
while Bewick was a lad, serving his apprenticeship, pretty Bessie Surtees eloped through a 
window of her father's house with John Scott, who, before many 3'ei.rs were over, was 
able to make her Lady Eldon, wife of the Lord Chancellor of England. The Side is but a dirty, 
disconsolate sort of place now, but in those days, before the Dene was filled up and Dean Street 
made, or ever the High Level Bridge was thought of, it formed the principal and busiest entrance 
to the town from the old Tyne Bridge, across which the coaches and chariots of other days used 
to rattle. A very animated picture of its more stirring times has lately been published by Mr. 
Garland of Grey Street. 

\ The Black Gate is very interesting, and, alas ! almost the last relic, except the Keep, of 
old Newcastle which has been allowed to survive. It has just been rescued from decay (and the 
destruction to which it had been doomed) b)^ the care and energy of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquarians, who have cleaned and repaired it sufficiently for it to be formed into a museum fit 
to receive part of their antiquarian treasures, and they are now arranged there in a manner con- 
venient and accessible to the world at large. 



12 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



rings, up to an occasional frontispiece to a book or an illustration in it. 
Nothing came amiss. i\nd such was the business he inherited and continued 
to the end of the chapter.* It must never be forgotten that Bewick had his 
living to make, and that he did not make his living out of his books. The 
world of to-day knows him as the great wood-engraver of the History of 
Quadrupeds, the Fables, and, above all, of the Birds ; but these were the 
blossoms and flowers of his life, not the solid roots from which he drew 
his sustenance. The world of his day knew him much more familiarly as the 
clever, hard-working craftsman, to whom they could apply for any ordinary 
"job" they wanted, certain that it would be executed with "punctuality 
and despatch." Drawing or watercolour drawing, such as he afterwards 
attained to, was not considered a necessary part of his education ; therefore, 
we need not feel surprise when he tells us he never received a lesson in 
his life, although two of the Beilby brothers used to give drawing lessons 
at this time. Nevertheless, he must have "picked up" much casual instruction 
from living in an artistic family, and this the Reilbys unquestionably 
were. The old father had been a silversmith in Durham, but not having 
prospered had retired to Gateshead in rather broken circumstances. He had, 
however, taken care to give his children a good education and they soon 
repaid him, by again lifting the family into a state of prosperity. The eldest, 
Richard, had served his time in Birmingham as a seal engraver; and on his 
return, taught the craft to his younger brother Ealph, Bewick's master, 
while William, the second son, learned enamelling and painting at the same 
place, and afterwards instructed his brother and sister, Thomas and Mary, so 
that the whole family were soon able to do something towards its maintenance. 
The father and Richard died at Gateshead, and an opening taking place in 
Newcastle, Ralph began the business to which Bewick was apprenticed. The 
whole family lived together, and as, amongst their other avocations, William 
and Thomas gave drawing lessons, Bewick, even without any regular teaching, 
must have felt the influence of a more artistic atmosphere than he had hitherto 
enjoyed, and could not fail to derive benefit from it. As Mr. Thomson truly 
observes, his way must have been greatly smoothed by seeing the constant 
use of pen and pencil going on around him. 

Copeland's Heraldic Ornaments was given him as an exercise to copy, 
and he says — " This was the only kind of drawing upon which I ever had a 

* See his letter to Miss Bailej-, where, so Lite as 1S14, in the zenith of his fame, and sur- 
rounded by pupils, he complains of taking cold "doing a lot of coarse jobs, such as bottle-moulds ;" 
and adds, " This is very hard work and heats me very much ; there is more labour and exertion 
used in doing them than in breaking stones for a turnpike road, and the work is full as stupid ; 
but coarse as the}' are, they are jobs from friends, and coarse as they are, I think nobody except 
Mr. Beilby or myself can do them.' 



HIS APPREXTICESHIP. 



13 



lesson given me by anyone." At this time wood engraving had sunk to a very 
low level. These were the palmy days of copperplate engraving, when works 
of the very highest character were being issued from the French, Italian, and 
English schools. But wood-cutting had become despised. No master, like 
Albert Diirer, condescended to draw designs for it, and broadsides, newspaper 
cuts, and cheap productions for the poor, were the utmost for which it was con- 
sidered fit. Such work, however, came occasionally in Beilby's way; and a 
certain Charles Hutton, mathematician — whose benevolent features may still 
be seen in the bust of him possessed by the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Newcastle — chose to illustrate the Ladies' Diary which he at this time edited, 
and his more elaborate work, ^ Treatise on Mensiiratioti, with diagrams cut in 
wood. At first Bewick was employed in cutting out roughly the corners from 
the diagrams which had been previously drawn on the wood, without being 
allowed to approach too closely to the lines, which, when thus prepared, his 
master used to take in hand, and finish himself. But he soon made such rapid 
progress, that Ralph Beilby, who preferred ornamenting silver with " the 
elaborate chasing in which he really excelled," trusted him to complete the 
blocks, from first to last, by himself. This took place during the years j 768-70, 
and in Hutton's Mensuration may undoubtedly be seen the first efforts of 
Thomas Bewick in wood engraving ; but they are highly uninteresting. Even 
the oft-referred-to diagram of St. Nicholas' Church, is exceedingly rude and 
inartistic, as well as out of perspective (however, that was probably Mr. 
Hutton's fault), and the Bewick collector who does not possess a copy of this 
rather scarce work need not regret its absence from his shelves.* In 1822, 
Dr. Hutton published an account of this book, in which he lays some claim 
to having introduced the art of wood-cutting into Newcastle. He had seen the 
process of cutting similar diagrams in London, and says he explained the 
process to Mr. Beilby, and procured the blocks of boxwood, and tools proper for 
cutting and engraving them, with instructions how the latter should be used. 
No doubt he did so, but perhaps Mr. Beilby was quietly smiling at his zeal all 
the time ; for, from a volume of unique impressions, taken from all the blocks 
in Mr. Angus' printing office in Newcastle, at an early date (now in the 
possession of the editor), it is evident that wood-cuts and wood-blocks of a more 
or less rude stamp, were well known, and frequently made and used in New- 
castle before this time. The tools, it seems, had hardly been to Bewick's 
mind, for he invented, it is said, for these very diagrams, a double-pointed 
graver. Mr. Atkinson,! in his SketcIi,X tells us — " Bewick thought of making 

* A copy maj'be seen in the library of the Literary and Philosophical Society at Newcastle. 

t George Clayton Atkinson, Esq., who lived for some time at Wylam, and under Bewick's 
instructions became an excellent amateur wood engraver. J Read before the Newcastle Natural 
History Society, and published in the quarto volume of their Transactions for 1S30. 



'4 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



a chisel with two points,* which, being immovable, would not fail to produce 
a line of equal thickness. There was a difficulty. No one could make him a 
tool sufficiently fine ; here, however, his ingenuity again befriended him, for 
he covered the steel with a coat of etching-ground, and by the application of 
an acid easily procured a cavity of requisite form, and found the tool answer 
every expectation. From this time he devoted himself more exclusively to 
wood engraving. His success in cutting the figures for Dr. Hutton, and their 
easiness of execution when compared to the heavy laborious work he had been 
before engaged in on metals, gave a bias to his inclinations which led him 
almost entirely to relinquish the other branches of the art in favour of wood 
engraving." 




Thomas Bewick's Box of Tools, especially engraved for this work hy the kind permission of 
Joseph Crawhall, Esq., to whom they were presented by Miss Bewick. 

Bewick himself tells us of his master: — " He undertook everything, which 
he did in the best way he could. He fitted up and tempered his own tools, and 
adapted them to every purpose, and taught me to do the same." This habit 
Bewick maintained through life ; it gave him greater range and adaptability 
than other men, and lends a double interest to the box of tools which the kind- 
ness of the owner has permitted the Editor to have engraved for this volume. 

* Of these double-pointed tools, some still exist in the box engraved above. 



HIS APPRENTICESHIP. 



Soon after this the old hostelry* of " St. George and the Dragon," at 
Penrith, wanted a bar-bill, and Bewick executed a representation of their sign 

on wood, which attracted much 
attention. It was followed by 
one of "The Cock," for an old 
inn of that name at the head 
of the Side, in Newcastle, next 
door to Beilby's workshop, and 
now orders for wood blocks 
began to pour in. Bewick says, 
"In this branch my master was 
very defective. . . . He 
did not like such jobs, on which 
account they were given to me." 
Mr. T. Saintf noticed the young 
apprentice, and thought him 
exactly adapted to illustrate the 
many little children's books the 
publication of which, in rapid 
succession, he was at that time 
commencing. The Editor is 
here able to give| some genuine 
and very interesting work of 
Thomas Bewick's at this early 
date, in which may be noticed 
the germ of what- was afterwards 
expanded into the History of 
Quadrupeds. 



* Still in existence. The Editor 
spent a couple of days there in 18S4. 

f A leading bookseller in New- 
castle, successor of White, the printer 
and publisher of Bourne's celebrated 
{oWo History of Newcastle, 1736. The 
local publishers were a noted and 
enterprising set of men in those days. 

\ Thanks to the generous kindness 

of Doctor Smith, who placed the whole 

of his valuable collection of blocks at 

the Editor's disposal for selection. 

passed out of use and remembrance. Doctor 

Johnson defines \x.—^'''v,ol^^oo\{horn:vn&bock\ the first book of children covered with horn to 

ind he nuotes passages from Shakespeare \_L(rve s labour Lost], Locke, and 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) Hornbook || 
.Mphabet, from Pruddah's office, Hexham.^ From 
Hugo's collection. Hugo says, of this one, 
".\ very clever series." 



This old English word has now almost 



keep it unsoiled," and he nuotes passages 
Prior, to illustrate this definition. 



10 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



jyi, was followed bv Spelling 
1 kinds, Fables in Verse and 



A New Lottery Book of Birds and Beasts, i 
Books and Moral Instructions, story books of a 
Fables 11)1111 Reflexions, in such 
bewildering succession that the 
Editor feels the general reader 
will not care for a minute critical 
description of them, while the 
Bewick student who wishes to 
make the collection of these 
children's books a speciality 
can find all the instruction he 
requires in the exhaustive cata- 
logues of Hugo, and amidst the 
learned researches of Croal 
Thomson, Pearson, and Chatto. 
The general style of his Avork 
at this time, and its gradual 
development, can, however, be 
judged of in the representative 
cuts given here to illustrate this 
period of his life ; and let no 
one despise these first efforts of 
our artist's graver. They dis- 
play invention of no common 
order, when we reflect that they 
are each exactly adapted to con- 
vey the meaning of the separate 
words they illustrate, in the 
simplest and most direct form 
to a childish mind, and imprint 
the idea indelibly, when once so 
conveyed, on an infant memory. 
What, for instance, can be more 
terribly graphic than the illus- 
tration to a "phrentick?" What more orderly, attentive-looking, and clerkly 
than that of the "scribe," with which the poor " phrentick" is contrasted.' 
The pictures of the familiar cradle, the tempting strawberry, and the forbidden 
knife, were doubtless never forgotten by our grandfathers, who first beheld 
them ; and these, be it remembered, all came from the exercise of observation 
on the part of a boy of barely fifteen or sixteen years of age. 




(Ll-iU by Rutiert Smith, Esq.) Hornbook Alphabet, 
from York. Hug^o says of it, " Some cuts of 
this series are extremely beautiful." 



HIS APPREMICESHJP. 








iS 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 






(From the Editor's collection.) Eight cuts from T/ie Foundlings published by Solomon Hodgson. 
They passed from his office to the Hugo collection. 



HIS APPREXTICESHIP. 



19 





-1, ''-il ■': r 







(From the Editor's collection.) From the original blocks by Thomas Bewick, for the six illustra- 
tions in the History of Little Red Riding //i)Ofl'," square iSmo., printed by T. Saint for W. Charnley, 
1777. Formerly in the Hugo collection. Excellent examples of Bewick's early work. 





The Old Man axp Di-.ath. (Nuw in the Editor's cullection, formerly 

(In the PMitor's collection, from the in that of J. VV. Ford, Esq.) 

Hugo sale, No. 3S9.) 

This is quite a diiTerent treatment of the subject to that at page 251, 

Select luiblcs. now in the possession of the Kev. E. Pearson. There it seems 

to be a rich man, here, a poor one, who is called to take the unwelcome 

journey. Compare Bewick's different treatment of a skeleton, and the 

inimitable expression he could throw into it, by examining "The Court of 

Death," at page 2S1, Select Fables. 





(Lent by Charles Lilburn, Esq., of Sunderland. 
From the Hugo collection.) 



(In the collection of the Editor.) 



This last woodcut of a group of men eating under a rude shed, and while 
their dog looks patiently 
for some food a wolf is 
peering angrily round the 
corner, appeared in Kay's 
A^nv Preceptor, printed for 
M. Angus and Son, New- 
castle, 1 80 1. An amateur 
collectorand excellent judge 
writes to the Etlitor— " This 
is one of the finest cuts in 

the lot, and evidently by , 

rp, r) • 1 II (l.cnl In koL.l. hnnili, Esq., iM.I). This series, from tiic 11 uy 

1 nomas i^ewick. collection, was obtained by him from Mr.Wm. Uodd.) 




HIS APPRENTICESHIP. 










(Letit by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

Speaking of these, and one or two other cuts, Hugo says : — 

" This page contains an unsurpassable series of specimens of Bewick's early work. Or one, 
very far from the best, representing ' Samson and the Lion,' he thought proper to place his ' T.B.' ; 
and here is one of his earliest representations of the ' Huntsman and Old Hound'; another 
illustrates the fable of the ' Shepherd Boy and the Wolf.' " 

1 1 1 1 1 1 mi I im I 

" ' ' ' ' This is exactly the same 

design, but a different block to 
that used at page 201, Select 
Fables, now in the possession 
of the Rev. E. Pearson. It 
also differs slightly from the 
celebrated wood block which 
gained Bewick a prize in 1775. 
which was cut for Saint's edition 
of Gay^s P'nbles, not published 
until 1779. 

HoTiSEMAN AND Olp Hounp. — Select Fahles. (From the Editor's collection.) 

(Formerly lent by J. W. Ford, Esq., to the Fine Art Society, for their illustrated "Notes" on the 

Loan Exhibition of Thomas Bewick's Works, 1881, page 5. 300 copies only printed.) 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



As we have seen, 
Bewick habitually re- 
peated the idea of a design 
again and again, whenever 
he found it a useful one, 
but almost always varied 
some detail, and intro- 
duced some improvement 
as it suggested itself. 



Bewick tells us : — 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



sent 
and 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



"Some of the Fahle cuts were thought so well of by my master that he, in my name, 
impressions of a few of them to be laid before the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c., 
I obtained a premium. This I 
received sliortly after I was out 
of my apprenticeship, and it was 
left to my choice whether I would 
have it in a gold medal or money 
(seven guineas). I preferred the 
latter ; and I never in my life felt 
greater pleasure tiian in presenting 
it to my mother. On this occasion, 
amongst the several congratulations 
of kind neighbours, those of Mr. 
Gregson, my old master, stood pre- 
eminent. He flew from Ovingham, 
when the news first arrived, over 
to Eltringham, to congratulate my 
father and mother, and the feelings 
and overflowings of his heart can 
be better imagined than described." 
— Memoirs. 

The cut that is always said to have especially gained him this premium 
was one of the " Huntsman and Old Hound." It was a favourite subject, which 
Bewick must have reproduced almost a dozen times, from the number of blocks 
(all differently designed) that came from his hand, and are still in existence. 

After living for some time as a member of his tnaster's family, a disagree- 
ment on domestic matters with one of the Beilby brothers (not Ralph) induced 
them to allow Bewick to withdraw from boarding with them. He at first went 
to lodge with his aunt, Mrs. Blackett, where he lived for gd. a week, bringing a 
brown loaf from Ovingham after each weekly visit there, and enjoying a plenti- 
ful supply of milk, since his aunt, being the widow of a freeman, had the right of 
pasturing a cow on Newcastle Town Moor. He afterwards lodged with a fla-x- 
dresser and bird-fancier, named Hatfield. From the bird-fanciers who came 
about the house he gathered with eager interest much curious information ; 



HIS APPRENTICESHIP. 



^3 



but Hatfield also allowed "tramps and scamps" to lodge on his premises, whose 
conduct, Bewick tells us, was wicked in the extreme ; the proper effect, how- 
ever, was produced upon him, for he looked upon their behaviour with the 
utmost disgust. Not only thus in boyhood, but as we find afterwards in man- 
hood, when brought into contact with the coarser side of London life, Bewick's 
strong healthy principles and sound common sense seem ever to have revolted 
from all that was degrading to his moral nature, and so he was kept free from 
the vice he constantly saw around him. Bewick formed at this time some 
valuable friendships. Chief amongst these was one with a remarkable man 
named Gilbert Gray. This man had been, at one time, destined for the Scottish 
ministrj-, but at the time Bewick made his acquaintance he was working as a 

bookbinder in Newcastle. 
Gray was of a very benevo- 
lent disposition, and withal 
so cheerful and attractive, 
that young men loved his 
company, and listened gladly 
to the kindly words of 
warning and wisdom he was 
in the habit of imparting to 
them. He used to get books 
of a moral or entertaining 
character printed at his own 
cost for young men, amongst 
whom it was his great object, 
Bewick tells us, to promote 
such honourable feelings as would prepare them for becoming good members 
of society. With this object in view, this remarkable man, by hard work and 
the strictest self-denial, used to accumulate sums of money, ^lo to £2,0 at a 
time, and occasionally, instead of expending it on printing, would devote his 
savings to the release of deserving debtors from Newgate,* as it hurt him, 
Bewick tells us, "seeing the hands of an ingenious man tied up in prison, 
where they were of no use to himself or the community." 

Reading was always a great delight to Bewick, but the little money he 
was able to save out of his wages only afforded him a scanty supply of books. 
He used, therefore, to rise very early that he might have the opportunity of 
reading through, in his master's parlour. The History of England ^hy Smollett, 
newly published at that time. When he had finished it, he persuaded 




The Dog and the Bull (in the Editor's collection). 

(Formerly lent by J. \V. Ford, Esq., to the Fine Art Society 

to illustrate the " Notes" on Thomas Bewick, see p. 98.) 



* At that time used as a prison for the town of Newcastle. 



24 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



Wm. Gray (son of Gilbert, who was also a bookbinder), to rise very early, in 
answer to a signal from the street, to admit him to his house, so that he 
might have access to the books sent there to be bound, and there he would 
remain until his work-hour came ! 

He tells us he bewildered himself much at this time by theological reading 
of too miscellaneous a kind, but happily he at length arrived at this not 
unworthy conclusion : — 

"As far as I am able to judge, all we can do is to comrrmne with and reverence the Creator, 
and to yield with humility and resignation to His will. With the most serious intention of form- 
ing a right judgment, all the conclusion I can come to is, that there is only one God and one 
religion ; and I know of no better way of what is called serving God than that of being good to 
His" creatures, and of fulfilling the moral duties, as that of being good sons, brothers, husbands, 
fathers, and members of society." 

His intimacy with the Grays led to an acquaintance with William Bulmer 
and Thomas Spence. Bulmer, who frequented the Grays' workshop, used, 
during his apprenticeship as a printer, to prove the woodcuts Bewick had 
executed. He was very curious about the art of wood engraving, and longed 
to see it succeed, for Bewick adds, "at that time the printing of woodcuts was 
very imperfectly known." Bulmer afterwards became famous as the proprietor 
of the Shakespeare printing office in Cleveland Row, London, where he led the 
way and showed the example, after Baskerville, of fine printing in England. 
Some sumptuous editions were issued from his press, and he not only excelled 
in the quality of the paper, and style of the typography he employed, but he 
became a liberal patron of Bewick and his school of wood engravers, as we 
shall see later on in this volume. 

Thomas Spence was of a different mould, he was one of the warmest 
philanthropists in the world. The happiness of mankind seemed with hiin to 
absorb every other consideration ; but he was violent against people whom he 
considered of an opposite character. In illustration of this, Bewick tells us 
that at some debating society, got up by Spence to air his theories, he expected 
Bewick to endorse his opinion, which he declined to do. 

" I could not at all agree with him in thinking it right to upset the present state of society 
by taking from people what is their own, and then launching out upon his speculations. I con- 
sidered that property ought to be held sacred, and, besides, that the honestly obtaining of it was 
the great stimulant to industry which kept all things in order, and society in full health and 
vigour. The question having been given against him without my having said a word in its 
defence, he became swollen with indignation, which, after the company was gone, he vented upon 
me. To reason with him was useless. He began by calling me — from my silence — ' a Sir Walter 
Blackett,'* adding, ' If I had been as stout as you are, I would have thrashed you ; but there is 
another way in which I can do the business, and have at you.' He then produced a pair of 
cudgels, and to work we fell. He did not know that I was a proficient in cudgel playing, and I 
soon found that he was very defective. After 1 had blackened the insides of his thighs and arms 
he became quite outrageous and acted very unfairly, which obliged me to give him a severe 
beating." 

* The Member of Tarliament for Newcastle at that time. 



Spence wished, amongst other things, to reform the mode of spelling in a 
phonetic direction. Bewick cut the steel punches for Spence's type, and Ralph 
Beilby struck them on the matrices for " casting " some newly-invented letters 
of the alphabet for his SpcUi?ig and Pronouncing Dictionary. Spence pub- 
lished in London many curious books in this peculiar way of spelling. Many of 
them were on his favourite subject — a subject revived lately and again brought 

before the public — of pro- 
perty in land being every- 
one's right.* 

George Gray.f the fruit 
painter, John Hymers, a 
retired sergeant from the 
Life Guards, and Whittaker 
Shadforth, a watchmaker and 
musician, were also associates 
who exercised some influence 
over Bewick's life at this 
time. He also formed a 
strong attachment to his 
master's sister. Miss Beilby, 
but circumstances were ad- 




Thi; 



(Lent by the Rev. W. J. Townsend.) 
block was lent by J. W. Barnes, Esq., to the Fine Art 
Society for their " Notes " on Thomas Bewick. 



verse, for before he was "out of his time" she had been struck by paralysis, and 
from this and other reasons his feelings were never declared to her family. 

At last the day eagerly anticipated by all apprentices arrived for Bewick — 
the day of his freedom. On October ist, 1774, he was set at liberty, and, for 

the first time in his life, he could dispose 
of himself as he chose. For a short time 
he remained with his master ; but in the 
early spring of 1775 he betook himself to 
Cherryburn, and for nearly a year and a 
half enjoyed the sweets of liberty among 
the scenes and the old neighbours he 
loved so well, and amongst whom he 
spent, at this time, an especially enjoyable 
Christmas.! He maintained himself by 




A Northumbrian Dance. 
(In the Editor's collection.) 



* Mr. Hyndman, the new leader in London of the Social Democrats, as he calls himself, has 
lately reprinted one of Spence's books. t Another son of Gilbert's. 

% He loved to look back in after years to this Chri?tmastide and the merry-makinff, where 
he mingjled amongst the "lairds" and farmers around his father's home, and danced to the tune 
of the Northumbrian small pipes, and watched the " feul-pleughs " or sword dancers, as they enjoyed 
their home-brewed ale. 



g 



26 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



doing piecework for Beilby and Angus,* usually going on foot once or twice 
a week to Newcastle to take to them what he had executed and seek fresh 
orders. His favourite route was by Eltringham ford and the ''Allers"t 
or the ferry-boat to Ovingham, and down the north side of the river, through 
Wylam and Newburn, to the 
town. He had developed into 



^^,,,,i,,j(iii«Jj;aii!«jfi; 







a powerful man, nearly six feet 

high, stout in proportion, and 

of great strength. He was 

courageous at all times, and 

once gave a notable instance of 

it by thrashing two miners on 

the spot, who had attacked him 

near his father's house, and, 

in his own words, "paid them A Game at Cards. (Lent by Robt. Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

both well." He threw himself into his old pursuit of fishing, and while 

following the rod had many opportunities of studying the habits of the wild 

birds and animals around him, and storing in his mind the exquisite little 

scenes and incidents he afterwards turned to such good account in his vignettes. 

Altogether "this was a time of great enjoyment," he says, but even such 

dearly loved liberty at last 

palls; "even angling became 

rather dull when I found I 

could take as much of it as 

I pleased." While he was 

pursuing it one hot day in 

June, 1776, laying down his 

rod awhile, he came to the 

conclusion he would like to 

see more of the country. He 

went straight home to carry 

out this resolution, and asked 

his mother to put him up 

some shirts, as he had deter- 




A Turnpike Gate. (Lent by Robt. Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

These last two blocks were cut by Thomas Bewick for 

a chapbook printed at Penrith, and they afterwards 

appeared in a children's book published by Oliver 

& Boyd, Edinburgh. 



mined to visit his uncle (her brother) in Cumberland. The same afternoon, 
with three guineas sewed by his careful mother in his waistband, he set off and 
walked up the Tyne to Haydon Bridge. This Avas the beginning of the most 



A Newcastle printer. The Editor possesses a unique volume of impressions taken from 
all the wood blocks in his possession in 18 11. Many are by Bewick. 

f Alder bushes. 



HIS jOCRXEY INTO SCOTLAND. 




(In the Editor's collection.) 
From Davison of Alnwick. Fergusons Poems Vol. I., 
page lo;. Davison carefully preserved his blocks, 



taking stereotypes 
publications. 



from them to use 



his 



delightful expedition of his life, an expedition on which in after years he loved 
to dwell, for Mr. Dovaston tells us he narrated all the particulars of it to him 

when quite an old man, in 1825. 
He passed up North Tyne by 
Haltwhistle into Cumberland, 
and soon reached his uncle's 
house at Ainstable, where he 
spent a week with his kinsfolk, 
and fished the Croglin for trout. 
He then visited Armathwaite, 
Penrith, and Carlisle. After- 
wards he crossed the Border 
and wandered far and near in 
Scotland, seeing Edinburgh and 
the Lowland towns, and even 
penetrating into the Highlands. 
Here he was charmed not only 
with the scenery, but with the 
unvarying kindness he met with 
from the people, who showered 
upon him every kind of hospi- 
tality, and would accept no 
payment in return,* content and 
delighted to sit round him in 
the evening listening to the 
stranger's account of his travels, 




-<nm-^y,^t^y^^_^^^ ^ -i^^Sa^a 



\.^j^ 



(Lent by Robt. Smith, Esq., iM.D.) 

Formerly in Scottish Minstrels, page 215. Cut by 

Thomas Bewick for Oliver & Boyd. 

or the Tyneside airs he whistled for their amusement. 

At last he turned his steps homewards. He took ship at Leith (with 

characteristic kindness nursing a sick child all 

the way, which would have died but for his 

care) and, after a stormy passage, he landed at 

Shields, and arrived in Newcastle on the 12th 

August, 1776. After his long absence he 

found he still had a few shillings left, and this 

gave occasion for his Newcastle friends to quiz 

him not a little for having, as they termed it, 

"begged his way through Scotland!" The 

appeared in several of his publica- young man's taste for distant scenes, however, 
tions. 




(In the Editor's collection.") 
Cut for Davison of Alnwick, and 
impressions from stereotypes of it 



He used to slip something into the children's hands, he tells us, when he could manage it. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



was still unsatisfied. He only remained in Newcastle long enough to earn 
sufficient money to take him to London. After a stormy passage of three 
weeks on board a collier he arrived in London on the ist of October, 1776. 

Here he found many old friends ready to welcome him, Philip and Chris- 
topher Gregson, William Gray, Robert Pollard, and Sergeant Hymers. Under 
the auspices of the latter he rambled 




Dogs Ouakkelling. 

(In the Editor's collection.) 

Formerly in the collection of J. W. Ford, Esq. 



about and saw London thoroughly, 
and then sat down closely to work 
until he had executed the woodcuts, 
which, through the kindness of 
Isaac Taylor (Pollard's master), had 
been provided for him. Thos. 
Hodgson, printer, formerly a New- 
castle man, had also been im- 
patiently awaiting his assistance, 
and employed him not only to cut 
blocks himself, but also to make 
designs for German workmen to 
cut in. Mr. Curran and Mr. Newberry, of St. Paul's Churchyard, also gave 
him work. It is strange, and much to be regretted, that of this work he has 
left us no record ; but many beautiful designs must have left his graver 
while in town, and here it was, probably, that he acquired some of the fine 
old copperplates (Hollar's Tangiers 
series, for instance) that he possessed, 
and carefully treasured throughout 
a long life. Fair prospects seemed 
opening before him, abundance of 
work, and troops of friends ; but he 
did not take to the Londoners as he 
had done to the Highlanders. He 
disliked and despised them, and 
they, in their turn, mocked at his 
Doric speech and Northern ways. 
" Their impudent remarks," he tells 
us, often led him into quarrels " of 
a kind I wished to avoid, and had 
not been used to engage in," so, 




lilllllTiiT 
The Two Frogs. (In the Editor's collection.) 

Formerly lent by J. W. Ford, Esq., to the Fine Art 
Society, to illustrate their "Notes" on Thomas 
Bewick. See page 16. This block differs from 
that in the Se/ect Fables, page 77, now in the 
possession of the Rev. E. Pearson, although the 
design is the same. 



" Notwithstanding my being so situated amongst my friends, and being so much gratified in 
seeing such a variety of excellent performances in every art and science — painting, statuary, 
engraving, carving, &c. — yet I did not like London I tired of it, 



HE RETURNS FROM LONDON. 





.zm^ 



(In the Editor's collection.) From 
Davison of Alnwick. 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.U.) 
The Rev. Thos. Hugo obtained it from Mr. Wm. Dodd, 




and determined to return home. The country of my 
old friends — the manners of the people of that day — the 
scenery of Tyneside — seemed altogether to form a 
paradise for me, and I longed to see it again." 

Isaac Taylor came to him, and asked how 
long it would be before he returned. '" Never," 
was the emphatic reply. Taylor warmly re- 
monstrated, pointing out the brilliant prospects 
he was abandoning, and when Bewick still 
remained firm, he left him " in the pet, and 
I never saw him more." 
Not so Air. Hodgson, who 
also remonstrated, but 
added that if Bewick was 
determined upon leaving 
London, and would con- 
tinue to work for him in 
Newcastle, he would fur- 
nish him with plenty of 
occupation, and that, as a 
beginning, he would give 
him as much as would 
keep him employed for two years. 
Bewick rejoiced at this, because he 
could not bear the thought of 
entering into competition in New- 
castle with his old master, Ralph 
Beilby, for whom he had the 
greatest respect. Thus, after about 
nine months in London, Bewick 
found himself, in the month of 
June, 1777, once more at home. 
He called on his old master, and 
established himself with a work- 
bench in his old lodgings. Very 
soon, however, proposals were made 
to him through a mutual friend. 



The Crow and the Pitcher. 
(In the Editor's collection.) 
Formerly lent by J. W. Ford, Esq., for the illus- 
trated "Notes" on Thomas Bewick. Seepage 16. 
This block differs from that in the St/eci Fai/ns, 
page 119, and also from the two preceding blocks. 
It seems to have been a very favourite subject with 
Bewick, and to have been constantly reproduced. ^^ j^jn j„ partnership with Ralph 

Beilby. After a little hesitation he accepted them, and the firm of "Beilby 
and Bewick" came into existence. Mr. Beilby already had a premium pupil, 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) From the Hug-o col- 
lection, formerly in the possession of Mr. William Dudd. 



and, to equalize matters between the partners, Bewick was led to take as an 
apprentice his brother John — the first and best of a long series of apprentices.* 
John constantly accompanied his brother on his weekly visits to his father and 
mother at Cherryburn. These visits, always performed on foot, were continued 
alike in storm and sun- 
shine, on dark winter 
nishts or dazzling summer 
evenings, until 1785, in 
which year his mother, 
father, and eldest sister 
all died, and his beloved 
Cherryburn lost to him for 
ever its greatest charm. 
It was with the greatest 
grief and consternation 
that he found, in the Jan- 
uary of 1785, that his mother had caught so severe a chill, or " perishment," 
as it is called in the North, through getting wet when going to nurse a sick 
neighbour, that " upon my asking her earnestly how she was, she took me 
apart, and told me it was nearly all over with her." lie employed his friend 
Dr. Bailes to visit his mother, and went himself from Newcastle two or three 
times a week to take the doctor's medicines to her ; but all his tender care was 
of no avail, and she died ^ __^ 



on the 20th of February, 
1785, aged fifty-eight years. 
Her son says she was 
possessed of great innate 
powers of mind, which had 
been cultivated by a good 
education, as well as by 
her own endeavours. For 
these, and for her benevo- 
lent, humane disposition, 
and good sense, she was 
greatly respected, and in- 
deed revered, by the whole neighbourhood. His eldest sister had been living 
ill London, but she happened to be on a visit to her home at the time of her 
mother's illness and death, and her over-exertion and anxiety at this time 

* His reflections on this and the resfiilar habit of taking apprentices which it led to are 
given further on, where the difficulties he had with some of his pupils are mentioned. 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) From the Hugo col- 
lection, formerly in the possession of Mr. William Dodd. 



HIS APPRENTICESHIP. 



31 



caused an illness that so alarmed her brother Thomas, that he brought her, for 
the convenience of medical aid and better nursing, to his own home at the 
Forth, where she also died, on the 24th June, 1785, at the early age of thirty- 
years. These gloomy days were not, alas ! over. Old John Bewick pined, and, 

as is said in the North, 
" never held up his head" 
after the death of his wife. 
His affectionate son, with 
eyes quickened, perhaps, 
by previous bereavements, 
observed so great a change 
in him that he strove to 
induce him to see a doctor. 
The old man's heart, how- 
ever, was broken ; he did 
not care to make any 




Mllllll 

(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) From the Hiicjo col- 
lection, formerly in the possession of Mr. William Dodd. 



struggle to live ; declined all medical advice, and " wandered about all summer 
alone" his son tells us, "with a kind of serious look, and took no pleasure in 
anything," till the autumn came, when he died on November 15th, 1785, the 
day on which he completed his 70th year. Then, indeed, Thomas Bewick 
felt that his home-life at Cherryburn was over ; and although the old place 
continued in the family, the old ties were broken, and he no longer cared to 

resort to a scene replete with so many melan- 
choly associations. 

Bewick tells us he took several walking 
tours during those happy years preceding his 
parents' death. In the Memoirs, page 137, he 
mentions that his 




(In the Editor's collection.) From 
Davison, of Alnwick. 

This block was used in Ferguson s 
Poems (illustrated by Bewick), 
Vol. I., page 90. A reverse of 
the same design is given in 
Hugo's Woodcuts, page 690, 
which he got from Stephenson's 
ofBce. 

Stainmore to Brough, Appleby, an 
leaving him and his family, I wa 
Newcastle." 



"Old school-fellow and friend, Philip Gregson,* of the 
Custom House, London, being on a visit to his relatives and 
friends in the North in 1780, I, being fond of rambling, pro- 
posed setting him on his return home as far as York, if he 
would walk with me to that city, to which he agreed; and, 
after spending a day or two with him there, we parted. On 
my return I took the road by Boroughbridge to Ripon, 
where I stayed a short time till I had viewed the country 
round it, and particularly Studley Park and its beautiful 
scenery. I then returned to Darlington, and changed my 
route to the westward, by Barnard Castle, Bowes, over 
d Penrith ; and from thence to my uncle's at Ainstable. On 
Iked home that day to Cherryburn, and so on the next to 



* Son of his schoolmaster, the Vicar of Ovingham. 



32 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




(In the Editor's coUaction.) 
From Davison, of Alnwick. 



The particulars of his expenses on the 
road have been carefully recorded — 
by pencillings, which here and there 
are very faint — in a little book which 
lies before me. It is called The Ladies' 
Complete Pocket Book, or Memor- 
andum Repository for the year 1778 
(Newcastle-on-Tyne : Printed by J. 
Saint for M. Vesey and J. Whitfield)* 
and seems to have been given afterwards 
to his little son, for inside is written 
in large childish characters, '' Robert 
Elliot, Book 17Q7." It now belongs to the Rev. W. J. Townsend, by whose 
kind permission I am able to give the following extracts : — 
[Written in ink, in a large sprawling hand, not Bewick's.] 

"Star, in Stonec-^te. 
Mr. Vesey's compliments to Mr. Edward Clough, and the bearer, Mr. Bewick, is an ingenious, 
clever man, who is now upon a tour for his observation and improvement as an engraver, settled 
in good and the most capital business in Newcastle. Any favour shewn him will be looked upon 
as a favour done to 

Darlington, July nth, '80. 
Mr. and Mrs. Tweedy are very well." 

[In Bewick's autograph, pencilled.] 
17S0. 

July 10. House expenses 15 o 

Tu. nth. Andrew Mills's Stob.f 

P. G.,J a hungry chap. 

Started at 5 in the morning 

from Newcastle, refreshed at 

Durham and Butcherace. 

Stayed all night at the sign 

of the Cock, in Darlington. 



M. Vesev. 



Paid. 



nth. Expd. at Durham 

Milk at Butcherace§ ... 

Exps. at Woodham 

Do. at the Bull, Darnten|| 

Do. at the Cock, do., for supper, 

&c 

With Vasey at Darnton 



W 



1 2th. At G. Smeaton 
Dinner at N'allerton 
Milk on the road 
Expd. a Thirsk 



Miles. 


i 


s. d 


I4J •■ 




7 
I 


33 ■•• 




3 
3 

I 6 
I 10 


16 .'.'. 




3 
I 9 

I 


9 •■• 




I 3 



25 



, I2th. Dined at the George in 

Northallerton upon roast 

beef. 
Hungry Phill. 
Set off at 5, and arrived at G. 

Smeaton. 
Milk at a farm house. 
Stayed at the sign of the 

Waggon at Thirsk. 

* It contains enigmas in verse by various Northumbrians, directions for new country dances 
for 1 778, and the names and regulations for the chairmen, and where their (sedan) chairs stand, etc. 

t I.e., Andrew Mills is a stob. "A stob " is a North-country expression for a stupid, thick- 
headed fellow. 

\ Philip Gregson. 

§ A farm near Sunderland Bridge, a few miles south of Durham. 

II " Darnton," a Northern pronunciation of Darlington. 



ins 


JOURNEY TO YORK. 




33 






Paid. 




1780. 




Miles. i, s. d. 




Th., 13th. Set out from Thirsk at 


Expd. at Easingwold 


10 ... Ij 




half-past four. Refresh'd at 


xMilk 


I 




Easingwold, Shipton. Milk 


Do., Shipton, &c 


7 




at a farm house. Arrived 


13. York 


13 




at York at 3 o'clock. 








F., 14. In Colliergate. Slept all 


14. Expd. at do. (at Robinson's) &c. 


-3 

fi 2 




night. Saw the Castle Ses- 








sions House, Minster, &c., 








&c. An amazing fine view 








from the top of the Minster, 








274 steps from ye bottom. 








Sa., 15 Set out from York at 3. 


15. Borrowbridge 


17 ... 3 




Refreshed at Burrowhridge. 


Rippon ... 


6 ... 3 




The Devil's Arrows, 3 large 




— 




pillars of stone. An exten- 




23 




sive view of a rich, well- 


Expd. ... ... 






cultivated country from a 








moor near B'bridge. 








Su., 16. Saturday at Rippon. Sun- 








day, do. The Green Dragon, 




8 6 




Studley Park, Fountain 








Abbey, &c. A delightfuU 








place. 








Mon., 17th. Hell Kettles, 3 or 4 








water-holes, said to be bot- 








tomless. Bowes, Brough, 








Stainmoor. Excessive hung- 








ry. Most stormy and dis- 








agreable day. 








Tu., iS. Set out from Darlington, 


Tu., 18. At 






half-past ten. . . . Mrs. 


Bowes 


21 




Taylor's civility and kind 


Brough, at Mrs. Thwaites 


13 ... I 2 




entertainment. Stopt at 




— 




nt. at Brough, where I was 




34 




obliged to stop at on acct. 


Lost pon a light guinea 


I 




of excessive hunger. 


Bad 'Tabbaco at Brough 


Ik 




W., 19. Set out from Brough at 


19. Barber Appleby 


8 ... 6 




seven. Call'd upon Mrs. 


Dined at Mr. Gregson 






Gregson. Dined with Mrs. 


Set out to Penrith 


14 ... 




Gregson. Called upon 




— 




at Jerremiah Robinson. Set 




22 




out to Penrith at 4 ; arrived 








at half-past 7. Staid all 








night with Mr. T. Collier. 








Kindness. 








Th., 20. Penrith Beacon. A fine 


20. Kirkoswald, at (Bowness's ?) 


8 




view towards ( UUes ?) water. 


Gave at Mr. Whalton's to the 






Parted with T. Collier on 


girl ... ... 


4 ■■■ 2 




the moor near this beacon, 




— 




&c. Arrives at Kirkoswald 




12 




at (George Bowness's ?) at 








II. Ainstable at 7. 









34 


LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 








Paid, 




1780. 


Miles. 


i s. d. 




F., 21. Saunteredabout.andcalled Expenses at Ain=table 








upon . . . . ? with Gave to Aunt Margt.* 








Aunt Margt. Johnston. At 








Mr. Wilson's till 12 o'clock 








at night. Prevented from 








setting off next morning. 








Sa., 22. Went a-fishingto Croglin, 








a fine place for fishing trout ; 








but poor success, &c. 








Su., 23. At Armathwaite Bay and At Armathwaite B. with D. 








Bridge. The Old Soldier, Slack 

&c. 


... 


3 




M., 24. Rose at 5. Set off to At Haltwhistle 




3 




Branton. Stopt at T. Bell's At Haydon Bridge 




3 




ai Glenwhett, Haltwhistle, Darlington, by Barnard Castle 








Haydon Bridge, where I met to Bowes 


21 






with a sweetheart, by whom From do. to Brough 


13 •■■ 






I was most kindly enter- From do. Appleby 


8 






tained. Arrived at Eltring- 


— 






ham. E. Forster. 


42 






From Ainstable to Branton, 








from do. to Eltringham 


10 






Do. Newcastle 


13 






Tu. Set off from Eltringham. C. E.xpd. at Newburn, and do. at 




S 




Gregson, Ovingham. Stopt Scotch Wood with Hether- 








atNewburn with M.Hether- ington 




5 




ington. Arrived at New- 








castle at half-past nine with 








Hetherington. 








Another walk is entered thus : — 








EXPENCES. / S. d. 








Charity to a Dum Man ... i 








Do. to Fond David I 








Chester le Street ij 








Durham ... 3^ 








Merrington ... ... ... ... 5 








Heighington ... ... ... ... 6 








Tuesday. 








At a farm house, for breakfast 6 








Richmond ... ... ... ... 6 








The Angel Inn, Cullyee (?) for supper... 1 2 Wedgwood. 






Breakfast at a farm house ... ... 3 








Rippon, at the Green Dragon ... ... 3 








To seeing Rippon Minster ... ... 6 








At a farm house ... 6 








Do. all night at the Black Bull, Smeaton 1 6 








At a farm house ... 1 








Darlington, at the Red Lion 5 








At a farm house ... ... I 








At the Free Masons' Arms, Durham 








* This is written b}' Bewick, and crossed out, as if on secor 


d thought. 





HIS YOri^XBY TO YOA'A'. 



From this simple account we may imagine the happy hours he must have 
spent on ■' one of his tramps," noting with observant eye all worth seeing, 

the appearance of Wedgwood 
while at the "Angel Inn," does 
not escape him, stopping here and 
there for refreshment at a road- 
side farm, visiting his friends, 
fishing ; charitable withal, and 
yet carefully economical. "Fond* 
David" and a "dum man" are 
not forgotten. Here we may 
note, before passing on to other 
subjects, that all children were 
fond of him. The anonymous 
author of a delightful sketch 
of his character which appeared 
in the Broadway JMa^-aziiic 
for July, 1869, dwells touchingly 
on this trait in his character, 
and says : — - 




(In the Editor's collection.) From Davison, of 
Alnwick. 

This is one of the most beautiful cuts done b}' Thomas 
Bevvict; for Davison, of Alnwick, and appears in 
Buffon s Natural Histciy (Alnwick, 1814), and also 
in Ferguson's Poems (Vol. I., page 13;). It is in- 
finitely superior to a copy of the same design (re- 
versed) which appears in Hugos Woodcuts (page 
469) which he got from Messrs. Griffiths & Farren, 
successors to E. Newbery, St. Paul's Churchj'ard. 



" Much of the charm of Bewick was, in reality, occasioned by his earnest loving spirit, which 
showed itself in a thousand little traits illustrative of the true nature of the man. Everybody 
loved him ; all animals were attracted to him. Children, too, loved him, and he was particularly 

fond of playing with the little 

'" """'I"|||||||||||||l|:||!||| creatures, who, notwithstanding 

his extremely rough face, wil- 
lingly came to him ; and among 
the numerous and very hetero- 
geneous contents of his capacious 
pockets he generally had an 
apple, a whistle, or a bit of gin- 
gerbread, together with pencil 
ends, torn proofs, and scraps of 
sketches. Frequently as he 
walked along the streets he was 
followed by a group of ragged 
urchins, importuning him for 
half-pence, and who were not to 
be shaken off till he bestowed 
the customary largess. He would 
turn to them when busy with a 
companion, sajing, ' Get awa', 
bairns, get awa' ; I hae none for 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) From the Hugo 
collection. Mr. Hugo obtained this Fable set from Mr. 
■William Dodd. 



ye the day.' But as they still kept dogging him and pulling at his coat, he turned into a shop, 
and throwing down a tester, said in his broad dialect, ' Gie me sax penn'orth o' bawbees,' and 
throwing the coppers among the children, said kindly, with a merry flourish of his cudgel, ' There, 
chields, fit yourselves wi' ballats, and gang hame singing to your mammies.' " 



* " Fond," Northumbrian for half-witted. 




LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




Netting on thr Tyne. 
(Now in the Editor's coUeition.) From Thos. Adams' 
Poetical Woris, pag^e viii. Alnwick : Printed for 
W'm. Davison. iSlI. 



Shortly before the death of Bewick's father and mother, in the year 1784, 
had been pubHshed one of the more memorable and well-known works, which 
in after years became insepar- 
ably connected with Thomas 
Bewick's name, viz., the Select 
Fables. It was customary at 
that time, for spelling books and 
children's school books generally 
to conclude with a few fables 
with moral reflections, and we 
have already seen that Bewick 
had frequently been called upon 
to illustrate such little spelling 
books. As early as 1772, two 
years before the expiration of 
Bewick's apprenticeship, 
Thomas Saint had pub- 
lished a little book called 
Mornl Instructions of a 
Father to his Son, which, 
Miss Bewick said, was illus- 
trated by her father. At 
the end of it were some 
" select fables." A second 
edition and then a third 
appeared (1775), and in 
1776 the "fables" were 
expanded into a volume by 
themselves,* fourteen cuts 
in very superior style being 
added. So popular were 
they, that a still better 
known work, the Select 
Fables of 1784, was pub- 
lished. The title pages of 
the two last works, Mr. 
Austin Dobson tells us. 
were " textually identical. 




The Peacock. 

This block was formerly lent by J. W. Barnes, Esq., to the 
Fine Arts Society to illustrate the "Notes" on Thomas 
Bewick (see page 20) and passed into the Editor's posses- 
sion from J. "tV. Ford, Esq. This is in an early and rather 
conventional style, but is spirited, and thoroughly char- 
acteristic. It differs from the same subject in the Select 
Fahles^ page 241, and from one in a much later style, to be 
found later in this volume. As all these three blocks are 
accepted by connoisseurs and critics as undoubtedly the 
work of Thomas Bewick himself, they are apt illustrations 
of the fact that he was constantly in the habit of repro- 
ducing the same idea. 



We have seen that Saint had published Gays 



* Now very rare. 



THE SELECT FABLES. 




Illl.'ll /mniillll ll 




f ,iifmitnimiiilj|]iji[jp»>_ jj^=-, I 

llll'l iri.iTTTTTr.Milllllill 

The Cock and the Well. 

(In the Editor's collection.) Formerl)' in the 
collection of J. W. Ford, Esq. 




IllillllllllilliniUlliir .7.... . ..H.iilllllliMililJIIil! 

(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D ) From Mr. Wm. Dodd, 




(Lent by Robert Smith, E.' 



Fables, illustrated by Bewick, in 
1779 (wherein appeared the pre- 
mium woodcut), a distinct work, 
which must not be confounded 
with the rare 1776,* or with the 
less rare 1784 Select Fables. In 
the earliest of these Select Fables 
we may see Bewick struggling 
with difficulties, and from want 
of technical knowledge producing 
verj' crude work indeed. The 
author of the Treatise on Wood 
Engraving, and more re- 
cently, Mr. Austin Dob- 
son, have traced for us 
very clearly how closely 
Bewick must have studied 
those who had gone before 
him. Sebastian Le Clerc, 
a Frenchman ;t Kirkall, 
who adopted the designs 
of Le Clerc for Croxall's 
Fables, 17:22 ; and Francis 
Barlow, an Englishman, 
who preceded both in 1665, 
and whose illustrations 
were, to use the words of 
a recent reviewer in the 
I^all Mall Gazette, "para- 
phrased " by Bewick. He 
undoubtedly gained many 
hints from them in the 
difficult art of composition. 
To use Mr. Dobson's own 
words, in speaking of the 



* After Mr. D. C. Thomson had written hif work on Bev.ick he met with .a ropy of the rare 1776 
edition Qi Select Fal>ks, with mai'ginal notes in Thomas Bewick's own handwriting'. This interest- 
ing^ copy the Editor has had the pleasure of examining. Apparently it ivas Bewick's working 
copy while preparing the edition of 17S4. 

f ^^ ho engraved un copper illustrations of ^-Escp'i Fables, in 1694. 



^x 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



Select Fables of 1784, " The greatest improvement is in the grouping. This, 
and the arrangement of black and white, are much more skilful than before." 
But all agree that the 
freedom and truthfulness 
with which he reproduced 
natural objects enabled 
him to far surpass all his 
predecessors, and improve 
immensely on theirdesigns, 
especially in the e.xecution 
of animals. The appear- 
ance of the Select Fables 
of 1784 certainly marked 
an era in Thomas Bewick's 
life, and added to his gen- 
eral fame. They were re- 
published with the same 
wood blocks by Emerson 
Charnley (Svo.) in 1S20, 
and by Edwin Pearson 
(i2mo.) in 1S71, and in a 
sumptuous 4to. Edition dc 
Luse in 1879.* These 
editions prove unmistak- 
ably, from the brilliance 
of the last impression, 
the durability of wood 
blocks and their practical 
indestructibility when pro- 
perly preserved and han- 
dled. 

^Ve may here mention 
that Bewick began about 
1779 to cut blocks as 
newspaper headings for 
the Ne%vcastle Chronicle, 
Jomiuil, Counmt, and ^^^^^ ^^, ^^^^^^ g^^j^j^^ ^^^^ j, p.) prom Mr. Wm. Dudd, 




* A few copies of this very heaiuiful and limited edition may still be had of the Rev. E. 
Pearson, St. Luke's Road, Cheltenham. 



Advertiser, and, a few years later, for the Durham Chronicle. A specimen of 
one of those done for the Courant remained in the possession of the family, 
and we give it here. 




Heapixg for the " Mewcastle Courant." (From the Bewick Sale, 216.) 

At that time it became the fashion to have tiny woodcuts to attract atten- 
tion to the advertisements in newspapers. A couple of fighting cocks would 
precede an announcement that a " main of cocks" would " be fought" on such 
and such a date, and a ship in full sail was always used before notifications of 
the times when ships would sail. Most of these in the North of England 
were from Bewick's workshop, and one exhibited a touch of his grim humour. 




Cut for a Horse Sale. (From the Bewick Sale, 217.) 

It used to figure above " Lost, Stolen, or Strayed," and showed a man on 
horseback riding hard towards a gibbet, with a devil sitting behind him. A 
view of Newcastle was used above the "Local News" in the Newcastle 
Chronicle for many years, and it is said that over a million impressions were 



40 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



taken from this block alone. Bewick refers to it in his Memoirs as an instance 
of the wonderful durability of wood blocks and their superiority in this respect 
over copperplates. 

Bewick began now to contemplate taking a wife. His respect and regard 
for the other sex had ever been very great. He tells us at page qy of the 
Memoirs: — 

"Sometimes my barometer of estimation has ripen to the height 
of ten to one in favour of the fair sex, at other times it has ffuctuatcd. 
and has fallen down some de^ees lower in the scale ; but with me it 
is now settled, and I cannot go lower than four good women to one 
good man. I have often wondered how any man could look healthj-, 
beautiful, sensible, and virtuous women in the face without con- 
sidering them as the link between men and angels. For my part, 
I have often felt myself so overpowered with reverence in tlieir 
presence that I have been almost unable to speak, and they must 
often have noticed my embarrassment. I could mention the names 
of many, but it might offend their delicacy. When a man can Perhaps for heading an 
get such a helpmate for life his happiness must be secured, for advertisement for re- 

such a one is of inestimable value : ' Her price is far above cruiting. (From the 

rubies.'" Bewick Sale, 218.) 

With such sentiments it is not wonderful that he exercised the same care 
and sound sense in the selection of a wife that characterised him in the other 
important relations of life, and that having secured the woman of his choice, he 
valued and cherished her with a tender and ever-increasing affection. He was 
rewarded by the enduring regard of a most intelligent, sensible, and devoted 
wife, and they together brought up a family so united, dutiful, and affectionate 
that peace and happiness surrounded every member of it until the day of their 
death. He tells us : — 




" I had long made up my mind not to marry whilst my father and miither lived, in 
that my undivided attention might be bestowed upon them. My mother had, indeed, r 
mended a young person in the neighbourhood to me as a wife. She did not know the youn; 
intimately, but she knew she was modest in her depoitment, handsome in her person, and 
good fortune; and, in compliance with 
this recommendation, I got acquainted 
with her, but was careful not to proceed 
further, and soon discovered that, 
though her character was innocence 
itself, she was mentally one of the 
weakest of her sex. The smirking 
lasses of Tyneside had long thrown 
out their jibes against me as being a 
woman-hater ; but in this they were 
greatly mistaken. I had, certainly, 
been very guarded in my conduct 
towards them, as I held it extremely 
wrong and cruel to sport with the 
feelings of anyone. In this, which 
was one of my resolves, sincerity and 
truth were my guides. As I ever con- 
sidered a matrimonial connection as a 
business of the utmost importance, and 



order 
ccom- 
^ lady 

had a 




I'm; A Tim: \i ( oMST's Hn.i.. 
(Frwin the Bewi.k Sale, 2ig.) 



HIS MARRIAGE. 



41 



which was to last till death made the separation, while looking about for a partner for life, my 
anxious attention was directed to the subject. I had long considered it to be the duty of every 
man, on changing his life, to get a healthy woman for his wife, for the sake of his children, and 
a sensible one as a companion, for his own happiness and comfort — that love is the natural guide 
in this business, and much misery is its attendant when that is wanting. This being the fixed 
state of my mind, I permitted no mercenary consideration to interfere. Impressed with these 
sentiments, I had long, my dear Jane, looked upon your mother as a suitable helpmate for me. 
I had seen her in prosperity and in adversity, and in the latter state she appeared to me to the 
greatest advantage. In this she soared above her se.x, and my determination was fixed. In due 
time we were married, and from that day to this no cloud, as far as concerned ourselves, has 
passed over us to obscure a lifetime of uninterrupted happiness." — Memoirs, page 147. 





My 


dear Isabella died. 




After 


a 1 


ong and painful il 


ness. 


On 


the 


1st of February, 18 
Aged 73. 


26, 


The best 


of Wives and very 


best 






of Mothers. 





His choice having thus fallen upon Isabella Elliot, with whom he must 
have been acquainted from boyhood,* their marriage took place in April, 1786, 
in the old church of St. John, Newcastle-on-Tyne.t The Central Station itself 
stands on the site once occupied by the Forth, formerly an open space within 
the town walls, and in one of the pleasant old-fashioned houses that surrounded 
it, Bewick had for some time been located. His house had a garden attached 
to it, J and in it had formerly lived Dr. Hutton, of the Mensuration. Bewick 
had bought some of the furniture from Mrs. Hutton, when she and her husband 
had removed to London ; but, doubtless, many new " plenishings " were added 
to do honour to the bride. Mr. R. Robinson tells us the " Woollett " engrav- 
ings which Bewick possessed§ were bought at this time to adorn the walls of their 
parlour. To this pleasant home, close, as we have seen, to the church in which 
they were married, Bewick took his wife, and they settled down to a domestic 
life which was ever after the scene of uninterrupted happiness. 

In 1790, Bewick became a member of " Swarley's Club," which met once a 
week in a public-house in Newcastle, and appears to have been a social rather 
than a political club, held for conversation and the interchange of ideas on 

* Her father, Robert Elliot, had farmed land near Ovingham until his death in 1777. 

t The tower of St. John's is almost the first object that meets the eye of a stranger, who, 
arriving at the Central Station in Newcastle, takes his way into the "canny toon" — as the in- 
habitants love to call it — by the new street of Grainger Street West. 

X Bewick loved a seat in his garden, and roses above all other flowers. 

§ The Editor has seen them hanging up in the house at Gateshead, and they were after- 
wards sold at the sale in Newcastle. 



42 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



things in general. After the History of 
certain members showed so much jealousy 
time Bewick had to shun their society. 
In politics he was a Liberal, and expressed 
strongly the views he held ; but they 
were not radical or revolutionary in any 
respect. His cast of mind was reflective, 
enlightened, and well balanced. A fol- 
lower of Cobbett, he was a regular reader 
of the Weekly Register. Mr. John 
Brown, of Dean Street, remembers that 
his father, Wm. Brown, of High Street, 
Gateshead, Joseph Lumley, of High Street, 
Gateshead, and Bewick used to take it 
amongst them, passing it on week by 
week. In a letter to the Editor, Mr. 
Brown says : — 

" I have faint recollection of anything 
pertaining to Mr. Bewick ; but he was a home 
man more than most of persons generally 
believed ; a hard worker in his favourite study 
in drawing, or forwarding work for his shopmen s 
in those things wanted. In the early morning, 
and on his return in the evening, his favourite 
garden seat was his great pleasure. If not 
working, his time was taken up by reading some 
work bearing on the subject of natural history. 
He was not one who had much other to trouble 
his thoughts about. In politics he was an 
ardent and constant reader of W. Cobbett's 
works ; in them he seemed to take great delight. 
He was not a great talker. He thought more 
than he gave expression to ; whatever subject 
was under consideration, he was very silent." 



He still kept up the habit 
of early walks. Later on in the 
Memoirs he tells us : — 

"After my journeys (long ago) to 
Cherryburn were ended, I used, as for- 
merly, seldom to miss going in the 
mornings to Elswick Lane to drink 
whey, or butter milk, and commonly fell 
in with a party who went there for 
the same purpose ; and this kind of 
social intercourse continued for many 
years." 



Qiiadritpeds became such a success 
and unkindness about it that for a 




A Mule. (Now in the Editor's collection.) 
From Beauties of Natural History sekcted 
from Buffons History of Quadrupeds^ 
with Cuts by Bewick. Wilson Spence, 
York ; and T. Catnach, printer, Alnwick 
(date about 1790). The designs .are the 
same, but the cuts are a little smaller 
than those used in the History of Quad- 
rupeds. 




Racehorse. (In the Editor's collection.) 




Bull (In the Editor's collection ) 



HISTORY OF QUADRUPEDS. 




A Stag. (In the Editor's collection.) 




(In the Editor's collection.) From Davison, of 
Alnwick, for whom it was cut by Thomas 
Bewick. An exquisite block. 



We have seen how early 
Bewick had been employed on chil- 
dren's books for Saint, Angus, and 
others. In them may be traced not 
only the development of his Fables, 
but the germ of the Qnadnipcds'A.wA. 
Birds that afterwards made him so 
famous. He tells us he always had 
an extreme pleasure in working at 
illustrations for the young and in 
administering to their amusement 
and instruction, and from the time 
he was a schoolboy had often felt 
"displeased with the figures in chil- 
dren's books, particularly with those 
of the Tlircc Hundred AniDia/s* 
the figures in which even at that time 
I thought I could depicture much 
better." So at last he determined to 
make a book for children himself. 
To this his partner acceding, they 
together proceeded to consult JNIr. 
Solomon Hodgsonf on the probability 
of its success, and receiving from him 
very warm encouragement, they began 
forthwith the celebrated History of 
Quadrupeds. Bewick tells us : — 




Hedgehog. (In the Editor's collection.) 
15th November, 17S5, the daj' on which 



" Such animals as I knew I drew from 
memory on the wood ; others which I did not 
know were copied from Dr. Stnellies Abridgment 
of Bitffon and other naturalists, and also from 
the animals which were from time to time 
exhibited in itinerant collections. Of these last 
I made sketches, first from memory, and then 
corrected and finished the drawings upon the 
wood from a second examination of the different 
animals. I began this business of cutting the 
blocks with the figure of the dromedary, on the 
my father died. I then proceeded in copying such 
not hope to see alive. While I was busied in drawing and 



figures as above-named as 1 did 

cutting the figures of animals, and also in designing and engraving the vignettes, iMr. Beil'oy, 

* In 18 18, he had the proud satisfaction of seeing the Three Hundred Animals re-issued from 
his own designs. 

■f Bookseller, and Editor of the Newcastle Chronicle, 



44 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




n the Editor's collection.) From Davison, 
of Alnwick. Cut by Thomas Bewick for 
Burns Poems (iSoS, Vol. II., page 140). 




being of a bookish or reading turn, proposed, in 
his evenings at home, to write or compile the 
descriptions. With this I had little more to do 
than furnishing him, in many conversations and 
by written memoranda, with what I knew of 
animals, and blotting out, in his manuscript, 
what was not truth. In this way we proceeded 
till the book was published in 1790. The greater 
part of these woodcuts were drawn and engraved 
at night after the day's work of the shop was 
over." 

In a letter written by Thomas 

Bewick to his brother John, in London, 

dated "January 9th, 1788,"* he says : — 

" I am glad to find a large collection of 
animals is now on its way to this ti_iwn. They are 
expected here on the latter end of this month. They 
consist of various kinds of the ape tribe, porcupine, 
tiger-cat and tiger, Greenland bear, and one of the 
fiercest lions, very lately brought over, that ever 
made- its appearance on this island ; so I expect to 
have the opportunity of doing such of them as I 
want from the life." 

And here we have some of the spec- 
tators " from the hfe " also. 

A few of Bewick's animals and (as we 
shall see presently) some of his birds were 
drawn from specimens in the Museum at 
\Vycliffe,t and he studied (as we have 
already seen) live specimens of foreign 
animals in travelling menageries when- 
ever possible ; but the English animals 
that he knew were all drawn with greater 
spirit, and their "pose" always displays 
a more intimate knowledge of their habits 
than could be the case with those he had 
never seen alive. Very different, for in- 
stance, from the unhappily stiff specimen 
of the Wycliffe giraffe, now in Newcastle 

* The first cut for the History of Quadrupeds^ the dromedary, was made (as mentioned 
on the previous page) on the 15th November, 17S5, being the day of Bewick's father's death. 
The prospectus was issued in 1787, and the work appeared in 1790. 

t This museum was collected by Marmaduke Tunstall, Esq., at Wycliffe (near Barnard 
Castle), at a cost of about ;^5,ooo. At his death it passed to Mr. Constable, and was afterwards 
sold for .^'700 to Mr. George Allan, of the Grange. After his death it was secured for about ir400 
for the Natural History Society of Northumberland and Durham, and formed the nucleus of their 
collection now arranged in the new Museum buildings, in Newcastle, where Bewick's original 
pencil drawings may be compared with some of the foreign animals from which he drew them. 



(From the Editor's collection.) 







The Woodcutter. (In the Editor's col- 
lection.) From Davison, of Alnwick. Cut 
by Thomas Bewick iox Burns' Poems {\%Qi%, 
Vol. 1 1., page 67). Itappeared in Davison's 
Buffons Natural History (Vol. II., p. 136). 



THE CHILLINGHAM BULL. 



45 



(see Bewick Sale Blocks), from which his design was drawn, where the animal 

has a wooden look, and as if it had a stiff neck. Dogs,* and donkeys, and foxes 

were his chief delight. He sketched 

them with unerring fidelity and infinite 

variety, and to them his History of 

Quadrupeds and other animal books owe 

their never-failing charm. Mr. Croal 

Thomson says of the greyhound and the 

fo.xes : — 

".An)- artist might indeed be proud to be 
able to produce two such faithful and beautiful 
pictures. It is not too much to say that Landseer 
in all his glory never produced anything better in 
composition than these ; his works may have been 
larger, and in colour, but for conception and execu- 
tion the foxes are quite equal to ' Not caught yet ' 
or 'Just caught.' " 




-j::?^— -^i>z^ - 



A.\ Ass. (In the Editor's collection.) 
Formerly in the Hugo collection. 



Fine woodcut specimens from the masterpiece designs of Bewick may be 
seen amongst the "Bewick Sale Blocks" (Nos. 157 and 159) ; they are almost 
the finest of the series, and equal, we are inclined to think, to those in the 
History of Quadrupeds. 



The Chillingh.\m Bull. 

The history of this remarkable block, the largest,! and, in Bewick's own 
estimation, the finest, he ever cut, has been so often recounted, and the whole 
subject relating to it so exhaustively treated by Mr. D. C. Thomson, that to the 
fortunate possessors of his valuable work it must appear superfluous to do any- 
thing but refer the reader to his treatise ; those, however, who do not possess a 
copy of this (very limited) biography naturally wish to hear all that has been 
said about this celebrated engraving, and to them the Editor dedicates this 
account, prefacing it by saying that to Mr. Thomson's research she is indebted 
for much that follows. 

Bewick had made use of the Museum at WyclifTe during his studies for 
the History of Quadrupeds, and to oblige the owner, Marmaduke Tunstall, 
Esq., he laid aside the completion of that work for a time, to execute this com- 
mission for him. Mr. Tunstall wished for an engraving, drawn from the life, of 
a Chillingham bull, to illustrate some notes he intended (but was prevented by 

* The late Mr. George .Abbs, of Clead^in Hall, used frequently to visit Bewick's workshop, 
and told Mr. Hurrell, of Bishopwearmouth, that one day Bewick showed him a block he was busy 
with, and remarked, "I lihe cutting the dogs." .Mr. Abbs added, " ily brother, Cooper, got on 
with him even better than I did, for he understood more about dogs and horses." 

j The old horse, "Waiting for Death," was larger, but it was left unfinished. 



46 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



death from) publishing about this wondurful native breed.* At first, a copper- 
plate was contemplated, containing a bull and cow both in one design. Bewick, 
however, fired apparently with the ambition of showing that his favourite 
medium (wood) was capable of being used for much larger and more elaborate 
designs than he had hitherto attempted, determined to execute the commission 
on wood. For the purpose of making the drawings from nature, he started on 
foot on the morning of Easter-Sunday, 1789, and walked with a friend about 
fifty miles by Alnwick and Hulne Park to pay a visit to John Bailey, of 
Chillingham. Mr. Bailey being steward of the manor, no doubt every facility 
would be given him that care and caution could suggest to get a good view of 
the animals ; but their sense of smell is so keen and their habits so restless that 
nothing is more difficult than to get near them without danger. They either 
scent their foe from afar and beat a hasty retreat to the hills, or, if infuriated, 
bear down upon him with an impetuosity that compels instant escape. 

" I could make no dr.iwinf; of the bull while he, along with the rest of the herd, was wheel- 
ins; about and then fronting us in the manner described in the History of Ouadnipedi,. I was, 
therefore, obliged to endeavour to see one which had been conquered by his rival, and driven ti5 
seek shelter alone in the quarry-holes or in the woods, and, in order to get a good look at one of 
this description, I was under the necessity of creeping on mj' hands and knees to leeward, and out 
of his sight, and I thus got my sketch or memorandum, from which I made my drawing on the 
wood." 

On his return home he devoted himself heart and soul to elaborating every 
part of it with all the skill he was then master of, and enriching it with a 
border of most delicate design. When executed, he deemed it — and ever after 
looked back upon it regretfully — as his masterpiece. Alas 1 it was doomed to 
be a source of bitter disappointment to him, for after ten impressions had been 
taken off on vellum to " prove " it, the block split, and they, and they alone, 
remained to tell what his masterpiece was like in its primal beauty. Thanks 
to Mr. Croal Thomson's kindness, the Editor has been able to enrich the large 
paper copies of this book with an impression from the fac-similc he had taken 
for his work on Bewick. At page 99 he says : — 

" The design of the Chillingham Bull, as shown in ^.\vt fac-simHe (wliich is taken partly from 
one on paper in the possession of Mr. M. Mackey, Newcastle, and partly from Mr. E. Gray's 
vellum impression), represents the bull standing impatiently pawing the earth, the full side length 
of the animal shown, with the head slightly turned towards the spectator, foam dropping from its 

* At Chillingham Castle, in Northumberland, the seat of the Earl of Tankerville, there has 
existed from time immemorial a herd of the wild cattle that used before the Roman invasion to 
wander at will through the primeval forests. They maintain their fierce untamable nature to the 
present day, ranging at will amongst the remains of a natural forest unplanted by the hand of 
man, which stretches from the castle up the sides of " Hebron Bell," and save that it is carefully 
enclosed, its wild thickets and hidden glades have little in common with the trimly kept park 
around a South-country nobleman's mansion. The Editor has crept cautiously through the 
glades, under the conduct of a keeper, to catch a glimpse of the white coats and black muzzles of 
the cattle gleaming through the trees ; and at Lanciseer's great sale, at Christie's, his beautilul 
drawings made the London public aware of the noble wild animals that still exist amongst us. 



THE CHILLING HAM BULL. 



47 



mouth. Overhead and in the background there is a mass of foliage, and in the front various 
plants, sufiRciently realised for their classes to be distinguished. At the right, in the distance, two 
of the wild animals appear. The engraving proper measures 7j by 5I inches ; but, when first 
printed from, it had a beautiful and separately wrought border three-quarters of an inch broad. 
Tunstall, on receiving the impressions, said he considered the figure well engraved and with much 
expression, though, 'on looking again at the engra\ing, [ think,' he wrote, 'the shading of the 
muzzle rather faint, and there seems to be a white line straight down from the mouth ; but this 
last may probably have happened in the taking off, though observable in all ;' and then, he asks, 
as in an afterthought, while he hits the truth, 'can it be meant to show the foam ?' The chief 
beauty of the Chillingham Bull lies in the mar\'ellously varied and minute character of the foliage ; 
the trees, which form a rich background, seem to have had more loving labour bestowed on them 
than the animal itself, and the intensely' realistic plants on the ground show how carefnlly and 
patiently Bewick studied from nature, and how triumphant the master could render his art when 
the subject was one in which his whole soul delighted, Bewick was one of the earliest English 
artists to go direct to nature and transfer her forms unaltered to his picture, and this at a time 
when landscape painting was little practised in England, and when illogical Sir Joshua was dis- 
coursing on Generalisation and the Grand Style as the only true means of attaining distinction. 
Bewick might in our day have been stj'led a pre-Raphaelite, ' retaining in the delineation of 
natural scenery a fidelity to the facts of science so rigid as to make his work at once acceptable 
and credible to the most sttrnl}* critical intellect,' and the engraving of the vegetation in the 
Chillingham Bull is one of the most striking proofs of this facult)'. It is a cut too precious to be 
lost sight of or neglected by those who would stud}' art in all its phases." 

Hugo thinks this bull " by right claims among the cuts the first place of 
honour," while the Treatise on Wood Engraving, and the British Quarterly 
Review, in an article in 1845, each express, on the contrar}', a very moderate 
opinion of its merits. The story how the unfortunate splitting of the block 
occurred has been discussed and re-discussed, until the difficulty of ascertaining 
the exact truth about it recalls to mind Whateley's celebrated Historic Doubts, 
a work which went to prove that very possibly Napoleon Bonaparte was a 
myth, and never fought a single battle ! 

One Saturday morning, the block being finished, Bewick took it himself 
to Solomon Hodgson's office to have the proofs printed.* The foreman, of the 
name of Bell, j being also a land surveyor, happened to have some fine vellum 
lying ready for plans. He suggested trying it, and a few exquisite impressions 
were the result. His son, in after years, gave — through failure of memory no 
doubt — various accounts of both the number printed and the material used. 
Bewick himself is silent on the matter ; in all probability he was too much 
disappointed to trust himself to write about it. 

Jackson, one of his pupils, says, in his History of Wood Engraving, page 
570 (published in 1839) : — 

* He had been there on Friday, but found the presses occupied by the CJirvnich newspaper 
for that week. 

t Father of the brothers who afterwards became celebrated in the North for their literary 
tastes, the fine libraries they formed, and the collections of treasures they acquired. Two of the 
brothers were land surveyors and one a bookseller. An account of their family is given in the 
Bell Genealogy, printed for private circulation ; and the magnificent catalogue of Mr. Thos. Bell's 
fifteen days' library sale, illustrated with Bewick cuts, i860, is much sought after. The Editor 
has the late John Fenwick's folio presentation copies of both of these volumes. 



48 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



"When only a few impressions of the Chillingham Bull had been taken, and before he had 
added his name, the block split. The pressmen, it is said, got tipsy over their work, and left the 
block Ij'ing on the window sill exposed to the rays of the sun, which caused it to warp and split. 
About si.x impressions were taken on thin vellum before the accident occurred." 

It was the account in the Treatise that called forth Mr. John Bell's first 

statement on the matter. He writes to Mr. Chatto, the literary editor and 

publisher of the Treatise, a letter, dated " High Street, Gateshead, May 20th, 

1840," in which he speaks of the 

"Six which were taken from Bewick's large cut of the Chillingham Bull on parchment, not 
vellum, as is published to the world. By-the-bye, the writer of the account of this cut, in line 13, 
page 57°, of the Treatise on WooJ EtigraTing, is incorrect in saying that 'the pressmen got tipsy 
over their work,' as at the hour when the impressions were printed most of the men of the office 
had left. On Saturday afternoon Bewick called, as he was going to Wycliffe on the Sunday, and 
my father mentioning some fine parchment which he had that day received from London to make 
stjme plans of estates on, he being also a land surveyor, it was got out, and a skin cut into six 
pieces ; and he, Bewick, and Hodgson went to the printing office, where the six impressions, after- 
wards said to be on vellum, were printed off, together with the same number on paper. My father 
picked out what he conceived the best impression for having found the parchment, and Bewick 
and Hodgson each took one; and on Bewick taking the remaining three to his workshop, Beilby, 
by taking another, reduced the parchment copies to two for Mr. Tunstall, which, with about half- 
a-dozen impressions on paper, Bewick took with him next morning to Wycliffe. When the im- 
pressions were taken off, Hodgson, from the size of the cut, wanted to know where it was to be 
put until Monda}', when the quantity wanted was to be printed. Bewick, taking the cut, laid it 
upon the stone imposing table, and the parties left the office. On Monday morning when the 
office was opened the cut was found to have split, the sun for the most part of Sunday having 
acted upon it through the window. Had it not been altogether in Bewick's hands in placing it 
where it was, there is not the least doubt but he would have made Hodgson answerable for it.* Of 
the four parchment impressions mentioned as being kept in Newcastle, Bewick, after the dissolu- 
tion ol partnership with Beilby, sold his. Mrs. Hodgson, I believe, gave that which her late 
husband got to some friend of his. Mrs. Beilby sold her late husband's, through the medium of a 
third person, to the late Earl Spencer for a large sum of money. This will be that noticed at line 
18, page 570, but I have been told that the sum was more than what is mentioned there, even as 
much as fifty pounds." 

To this letter Mr. Chatto replied, stating his conviction that there were 

more than " j-Z.v impressions taken on parchment." Mr. Hugo comments 

upon it as 

" Tolerably certain that six impressions on parchment, and the same number on paper, were 
all that were taken, with Bewick's knowledge, on the Saturday before the block was injured, but 
that Simpson may have clandestinely taken some other impressions on the Sund.ay, and that to 
his unauthorised use of the cut the lamentable injury may possibly be attributable. Allowing, 
however, that Simpson had the power, I do not believe that he exercised it in this particular 
instance. The parchment impressions referred to by Mr. Chatto are known to bear the name of 
the artist, and were accordingly taken after the first attempt at reparation, and not on the Sunday 
when the cut was at the office ; and I very much doubt whether more than six impressions on 

parchment, with the border, and really without the name, can be found to exist 

AVhether Bewick carried a parchment impression to Mr. Tunstall 

seems very doubtful. Possibly my second and third impressions are two of the three which he 
retained. It is, however, probable that he gave that gentleman all the impressions taken on 
paper, and that none found their way to any other quarter. I am not aware of the existence of a 
single impression on paper taken from the block before the addition of the name." 

[He is all wrong about this, as we shall see presently.] Nevertheless, Mr. J. 

* III the Editor's copy of Hugo's Beiaick Colleclor, formerly belonging to Miss Bewick, the latter 
has jicncided an emphatic "not he." 



THE CHILLIXGHAM BULL. 



49 



Bell contradicted his own letter ten years later (1S50), both as to the parchment 

and the number, which he now reduced to four, by writing to Mr. Hugo : — 

" My father having a ven- fine small skin of vellum, which he had got for a plan, but which 
had not been used, he would try how the impressions would look on it, and took it with him to 
the printing office, where it was divided into four, and four impressions taken off, which were all 
of them as good as possible ; but my father, as he had found the vellum, picked that which he 
thought the best, which is that I have. The other three were given to Mr. Hodgson, Mr. Beilby, 
and INIr. Bewick to take to Mr. Tunstall. There were also some few impressions taken off on 
paper, a strong but coarse sort of wove paper, but I could never learn how they were distributed, 
as Bewick took most of them with him the following diy to Mr. Tunstall. \Vhen the printing of 
these impressions was finished the cut was cleaned off, and brought from the press-room to Mr. 
Bewick, who laid it upon the office window as the safest place ; but on Monday morning, when 
the office was opened, the cut was found split in two from the heat of the sun, the window facing 
the South-West. Putting the wet cut upon the window was altogether the act of Mr. Bewick, or 
there would have been some misunderstanding about it, which there was not. J NO. Bell." 

Will it be believed that to crown and contradict all this there was a letter 
at this very time e.xtant, from Mr. Tunstall, dated "July 15th, 1789. I duly 

received the si.x impressions of the Chillingham Bull on vellum 

They were rather rela.xed, and a little crumpled in the coming."* From this 
it appears, therefore, that si-x, not two, on vellum went to Mr. Tunstall, and 
that they were scut, not taken to him by Bewick ; and, Mr. Thomson says, 
" they appear to have been returned to Bewick on Tunstall's death, shortly 
after." No mention is made of paper impressions, and as they have never 
been heard of since, we may dismiss as mythical Bell's statement as to copies 
being taken on "coarse wove paper" before the block split. This affords us a 
solution of the whole matter. Neither four nor six, but ten, must have been 
the number taken on vellum that afternoon ; one for Bewick, one for Mr. 
Bailey, one for Bell, one for Hodgson, and si.x for Mr. Tunstall ; and these si.x 
returning into the possession of Bewick accounts for two sold by Miss Bewick 
to Hugo, one given to Mrs. Beilby, one given by Bewick to his intimate friend, 
R. Pollard. This is the view adopted by Air. Croal Thoinson, and is entirely 
borne out by the documentary evidence (written at the time) of Tunstall's 
letter. To Mr. Thomson's patient investigation I am principally indebted for 
being enabled to compile the following pedigreed list of the present owners of 
the ten, their extreme rarity and great beauty justifying the interest taken in 
these wonderful impressions : — 



I.— The Natural History Museum of 
NEWCASTLE-uroN-TvNE. From the 
family of Thomas Bewick. His own 
copy. Bequeathed to the Society by 
Miss Bewick. 

2. — Dr. Jolv, of Dublin. Bought at the Hugo 
Sale for £j, and is the copy Bell says 
his father "chose." Hugo obtained it 
from Bell. 



3. — Miss Julia Bovd. That one, inscribed 
in Bewick's own handwriting, " For 
Mr. Bailey." Sold by Mr. Bailey's 
grandson (Mr. Bailey Langhorn, of 
Wakefield; to Mr. J. W. Ford, of En- 
field, who says, "It is a brilliant im- 
pression, in faultless condition," from 
whom it passed to the Editor. 

[See Croal Thomson, page 104.] 



* See the Life of Marmadiike Tunstall, by Mr. George Townsend Fox. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



7. — Dr. Joly, Dublin. Also purchased by 
him at the Hug-o Sale in 1.S77, being 
one bought by Hugo of Miss Bewick. 

8. — Earl Spencer, who bought it of Mrs. 

Beilby, who sold it to him for /"so, it 
is said, after the death of her husband 
(Bewick's partner). 

9. — The South Kensington Museum. Be- 
queathed to it by the Rev. George 
Townsend, who purchased it from Mr. 
Michael Coombes, Regent Street, by 
whom it was bought from Mr. Edwin 
Pearson for fifty guineas. Mr. Pearson 
got it from Mr. \Vm. Dodd, bookseller, 
Newcastle. 

10. — Formerly in the possession of the late 
Mr. Kettle, a music master in New- 
castle. It was sold to him by Mr. \Vm. 
Dodd, who bought it in London. Mr. 
Dodd repurchased it at Mr. Kettle's 
death. He thinks this is the copy he 
sold to Mr. Jupp (letter from Mr. 
Dodd, under date Oct. 23, 1SS5). 



4. — Mk. EmviN GR.-iV, of 'V'ork. Jlr. C. 
Thomson says, " Probably the one to 
which Bell refers when he saj's ' Mrs. 
Hodgson gave that which her late hus- 
band got to some friend of his.' " Per- 
haps Davison, of Alnwick, who is said 
to have possessed one. 

[We now come to the six that were sent to 
Tunstall, and returned to Bewick after his 
death. Can it be, he claimed them instead of 
payment for the block, as he was never able 
to supply the fifty Tunstall ordered ?] 

5. — Rev. Mr. Buckley, of Middleton Cheney. 
Purchased at the Hugo Sale for .^3 los., 
in 1S77, having been bought by Hugo 
in 1852 for £1'^, from Miss Bewick. 

6. — Mr. Poll.^rp. Descended from Mr. 
Robert Pollard, the engraver, to whom 
it was gi\en bv Bewick, who was very 
intimate with him. 

[See the portrait of Pollard bv Bewick, 
No. 2 of the " Bewick Sale Blocks."] 

These ten impressions are all that constitute the authentic " first state," 
for Bell's statements about paper impressions being taken on that memorable 
Saturday may be safely disregarded. Both Hugo and Thomson, after thorough 
sifting, eventually agree in discarding them. 

The Editor may here add that it would have been well had they, at the 
same time, discarded altogether the word "parchment." These rare copies are 
on vellum, which has a very delicate texture, and a fine satin-like surface. 
Parchment, with its harsher gram and coarser texture, would have been quite 
unsuitable. 

Mr. C. Thomson sums up the history of the different '' states " of the block 
as follows : — 

" The first ten impressions of the block on vellum show no mark of the split ; they have the 
ornamental border, with no title, and without Bewick's name at the left low corner ; the reproduc- 
tion given is a.Jac-siinile of this state, impressions of which are both scarce and valuable." 

" The second state differs from the first by having T. Bewick, Newcastle, 1789, at the corner 
left dark in the first state, the T and B being in monogram. The following title is at the foot : — 
'The Wild Bull, of the ancient Caledonian breed, now in the Park at ChiUingham Castle, North- 
umberland, 1789.' These were pulled after Bewick had taken the cut home, and after he had 
been able to close it up, so that some impressions were obtained without showing the crack. The 
value of these is not nearly so great as the first state, yet a high price has been [)aid for a perfect 
copy. Several impressions of this state also exist with the cracks as they appeared after they 
began to show again." 

"The third state in which the block remained until 1817 shows the block in a dilapidated 
condition, the cracks present themselves over the plate, across the centre, lengthwise, and in other 
places ; the small piece which was added to the block, so as to make it fit the border, also shows 
more distinctly ; the border itself has disappeared (it has been lost sight of for many years) and 
only a simple double line of black surrounds it," 



THE CHILLIXGHAM BULL. 



" In 1817, the block was repaired by having an iron band screwed round it, and impressions 
were pulled without showing the crack. Underneath, 'Newcastle, printed by Ed. Walker, 1S17,' 
was inserted. In this, the fourth state, many impressions were taken, and their value is just what 
the collector cares to give, the published price in 1847 being 5s., as shown in the advertisement at 
the end of the History of Birds of that year." 

"The Chillingham Bull original wood block, without the border, was sold to Mr. Hugo for 
£\o, and in 1S77 was again sold for £l(:i among Mr. Hugo's collection. It is now the property 
of Mr. Gow, of Cambo, near Newcastle. In 1877, it was then in the clamped condition it had 
been put into sixty years before, and the cracks were again apparent. Since then the block has 
been reclamped, and the fifth state was first published in Newcastle in 1878. The impressions are 
advertised to be 'equal in brilliancy and richness of tone to any hitherto printed, with the excep- 
tion of some few special copies.' A few impressions have been taken on vellum, and also a larger 
number on paper, some of which are still to be had at a moderate price." 

" In Mr. Hugo's collection there was a proof of the Bull ' without the border and title, and 
spaced out by Bewick with a blacklead pencil into squares for re-engraving.' This had been 
obtained from W. Garrett, of Newcastle, who said, in a letter to Hugo on the subject, ' This im- 
pression of the Bull is a curious and valuable one, for when the block was cracked Bewick des- 
paired of its ever being repaired, and therefore set to work and squared out an impressiun (the 
one under notice) for a new block, should he not succeed in clamping it together.' Bewick did 
not engrave another large block, but there is reason to think that he either copied, or deputed 
some of his apprentices to copy, the design in a much smaller ^ize. Bell, in his Appendix, says 
Bewick engraved such a cut, and mentions the great rarity of the impressions. The spaced out 
cop)- is now in the collection of Mr. Crawford J. Pocock, Brighton. An inquiry as to the Bull 
having been started in a Newcastle newspaper, ^Ir. Pocock was led to minutely examine this im- 
pressicm, and, in conjunction with a co[)y of the block printed underneath, he arrived at the con- 
clusion, aft T considering what Garret and Bell have said, that this small block is the one executed 
by Bewick, in reverse, from the large pencilled one. He fotuid, on reducing the spaces one-third 
(the smaller block being, therefore, one-ninth of the larger), that the little cut comes exactly 
similar to the other. From the beauty of workmanship and the very precise nature, of the copy, 
it appears verj" probable that Mr. Pocock's conclusion is correct, though there is no further 
documentary evidence to support it. In any case, it cannot be denied that this small cut is a very 
superior engraving." 

Th.iTiks to Mr. Thomson's kindness, the Editor is able to give an impres- 
sion from an electrotype taken from the small block here alluded to. 




(From an electrotype obt.iincd by the Editor from .Mr. Croal Thomson.) 




LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



In 1789, Beilby and Bewick published a large copperplate (size loj ins. by 
7 ins.) of the " Large Ox," a famous animal which belonged to Mr. Edward 
Hall, of Whitley, in Northumberland. It was both drawn and engraved by J. 
Bewick. In 1790, another large copperplate (13 ins. by 8^ ins.) of the " Kyloe 
O.x," was also e.xecuted by him for Robert Spearman, Esq., of Rothley Park, 
Northumberland.* 

In 1789, A Tour through SivcJfii, Lapland, Finland, and Denmark, by 
Matthew Consett and Sir H. G. Liddell.t was also published, with copperplates 
by Beilby and Bewick. 

The success of the History of Quadrupeds led Bewick and his partner to 
think of venturing on the work that was to crown Bewick's fame, and in 
which, as he tells us himself, his now ripened 
powers culminated. He had occupied himself very 
much in reading ; and he mentions Brooks and 
Miller's Natural History, Dr. Smellie's Abridg- 
ment of Buff on, and Pennant's works. Mr. George 
Allan lent him Albin's History of Birds, Belon's 
very old book, and Willoughby and Ray. Mr. 
John Rotherham gave him Gesner's Natural 
History. Michael Bryan, Esq.,| of London, lent him the splendid volumes, 
Planchc Enluminc'e, of Buffon ; and George Silvertop, Esq., of Minsteracies, 
Edwards' Natural Historv. White's History 
of Selborne makes up the list. Many friends 
and amateurs, as soon as they became aware 
he was engaged in preparing a book on birds, 
began to overwhelm him with correspondence 
he often felt it irksome to reply to, although 
in this way he doubtless received some 
valuable information. He tells us : — 

"At the beginning of this undertaking I made up 
my mind to copy nothing from the works of others, but 
to stick to nature as closely as I could ; and for this 
purpose, being invited by Mr. Constable, the then owner 
of Wyclifl'e, I visited the extensive museum there, col- 




\'crv earliest style. 
(In the Editor's collection.) 




Very early Et3'Ie. (In the Editor's 
collection.) This block passed 
from Catnach's office to the Rev. 
Thomas Hugo. 



* See Note XIV. on the Cheviot Ram in the " Bewick Sale Copperplates," in this volume. 
It is an admirable specimen of his work in this style of engraving. 

t Of Ravensworth, near Newcastle, father of the Lady Bloomfield whose Memoirs have been 
published lately, and grandlather of the present Earl of Ravensworth. 

\ The author of the Dtctiotmry of Painters. His daughter intermarried with a family near 
Bishop Auckland (from whom Mrs' Laing, of Sunderland and Etal, is descended), and as Bewick 
mentions staying for a couple of days with a school friend at Bishop Auckland, on his way home 
from Wycliffe, this may have led to the loan. 



lected by the late Marmaduke Tunstall, E?q., to make drawings of the birds. I set off from New- 
castle on the l6th July, 1791, and remained at the above beautiful place ntarl3' two moiiths. 
drawino^ from the stuffed specimens. I lodged in the house uf John Guundry, the persun wliu 
preserved the birds for Mr. Tunstall ; and boarded at his father's, G;.'urg-e Goundry. the old miller 
there. Whilst I remained at Wycliffe, I frequentl}' dined with the Rev. Thomas Zouch,* the 

rector of the parish As soon as I arrived in Newcastle I immediately 

began to engrave from the drawings of the birds I had made at W^-cliffe ; but I had nut been 





The Roiux. 

(In the Editor's collection.") Mr. Wu^ 
bought this block from Miss Bewick. 



The Chaffinch. 

(In the Editor's collection.) Mr. Hugo bought 
this block from Miss Bewick. 

long thus engaged till I found the very great difference between the preserved specimens and 
those from nature; no regard having been paid at that time to fix the former in their proper 
altitudes, nor to place the dift'erent series of the feathers so as to fall properly vn each otlier. It 
has always given me a great deal of trouble to get at the markings of the dishevelled plumage, 
and, when done with cverj' pains, I never felt satisfied with them. I was, on this account, driven 
to wait for birds newly shot, or brought to me alive, and in the interval employed my time in 
designing and engraving tailpieces or vignettes. My sj-orting friends, however, sui>plicd me with 
birds as fast as the)- could." 






We can picture his delight in 
this engrossing occupation, the happy 
but toilsome hours he would spend 
in patient preparatory study, and the 
careful work he would bestow on 
every little detail. He toiled indeed, 
both late and early, with all his 
wonted perseverance, and at length 
the first volume, containing the land 
birds, was finished, and ready for the 
press in the month of September, 
lyqj. ]\Ir. Beilby again prepared 
the letterpress, and he has nevtr 
perhaps received his full mted of praise for this very creditable performance. 

* A relation of the Hcadlam famil)', through whom he held the living if Wycliffe, which is 
in their gift. 




The Rofin Rei.i:ueast. 

(In the Editor's collection.') Mr. Hugo bought 
this block from Miss Bewick. 




LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




But soon Bewick had to work alone. Notwithstanding the success of the 
Quadrupeds, and the still greater success of the first volume of the British 
Birds — witnessed by the 
rapid demand for fresh edi- 
tions — Mr. Beilby preferred 
to sell Bewick his share in 
both, and withdraw from the 
two undertakings, owing to 
some disputes which arose 
about the History of Quad- 
rtipcds with their printer, 
Solomon Hodgson. "Mr. 
Beilby now sought repose," 
Bewick says, " and could not 
be turmoiled with disputes xhe Scait Di;ck. 

of any kind," and, there- <^l^™m the Bewick Sale, 220.) 

fore, in the second volume — which contained the water birds — Bewick worked 
alone ; and " from necessity, not choice," turned author. He drew the figures 
of the birds first, and " cut them in " on the block ; and as each one was 
finished wrote the description of it as carefully as possible. At last his labour 
was completed, and 
the second volume, 
compiled as well 
as engraved by 
Bewick alone, ap- 
peared in 1.H04. 
The first volume 
had been printed 
at Solomon Hodg- 
son's oflfice by 
Simpson, the press- 
man who " pulled" 
the celebrated vel- 
lum copies of the 
Chillingham Bull ; 

but Bewick having quarrelled with Hodgson's widow, the second volume was 
jirinted at Walker's office by a certain George Barlow, who, Hugo tells us, 

" Was brought down from London to print tiie Water Birds and Bewick's other works in a 
superior manner to old John Sim|ison, the pressman to Mr. Solomon Hodg=on. In this, how- 
ever, he failed, for Simpson's work is admitted up to the present d.iy to be superior to Barlow's. 
— Bewick Collector, Jiage 198. 




^ ., 'f-W 



\'ery latest style. (Now m the Editor's collection.) 
From Catnach's office, whence it passed to the Rev. Thomas Hugi 



HISTORY OF BRITISH BIRDS. 




Mr. Hugo gives an interesting anecdote, on the authority of Mr. R. 

Robinson, of how the drawing for the pintado was taken from the life. 

" Bewick drew this bird from a living specimen at Elswick Hall,* near Newcastle. Accom- 
panied by his daughter Jane, then a child, he made the sketch while out walking, between five 
and six o'clock on a fine summer morning. The gate of the yard being fastened, he had to climb 
over the wall to obtain an entrance, and has represented this incident in the background to the 
cut. Though very minute, the resemblance to himself of the figure on the wall is quite perfect." 

All those who have 
ever written about Bewick, 
or have been at all capable 
of forming a judgment on 
the characteristics of his 
work, agree in dwelling 
with keen appreciation on 
the exquisite qualities dis- 
played in his delineation of 
birds. ]\Ir. Ruskin says, 
at page 342, Elements of 
Drawing :— 

" No. 5. — Bewick. — The execution of the plumage in Bewick's birds is the most masterly 
thing ever yet done in wood-cutting ; it is just worked as Paul Veronese would have worked in 
wood had he taken to it; his vignettes, though too coarse in execution and vulgar in types of 
form to be good copies, show, nevertheless, intellectual power of the highest, and there are pieces 
of sentiment in them, either pathetic or satirical, which have never since been equalled in illus- 
trations of this simple kind, the bitter intensity of the feeling being just like that which char- 
acterises some of the leading pre-Raphaelites. Bewick is the Burns of painting." 

Mr. Austin Dobson, in his Beivick and his Pupils, page 102, says : — 

" There is no doubt that the Birds are Bewick's 
high-water mark. He worked in these under a con- 
junction of conditions which was especially favourable 
to his realistic genius. In the first place, he was 
called upon not to invent or combine, but simply to 
copy nature with that 'curious eye' which alters 
nothing, striving only to give its full import and 
value to the fold of a feather, the tenderest m.irkings 
of breast and back, the most fugitive accidents of 
attitude and appearance. Then, having made his 
drawing in colour or otherwise, he was not obliged to 
see it altered or degraded in its transference to the 
Wood block at the hands of another person. Between 
his original study and the public he was his own 
interpreter. In confiding his work to the wood he 
was able to select or devise the most effective methods 
for rendering the nice varieties of plumage, from 



The Pied W..iGT.\iL. 

(In the Editor's collection.') Mr. Hugo bought this 
block from Miss Bewick. 




(Lent by Robt. Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

.Mr. Hugo got this from Solomon 

Hodgson's office. 



* Then the property of the late Thomas Hodgson, Esq., father of John Hodgson Hinde, 
Esq. (the antiquar)-, and continuer of his namesake Hodgson's, History of Korthumberland, to 
whom he was not related), of the late Richard Hodgson (afterwards Huntley), Esq.. of Carham- 
on-Tweed, formerly M.P. for Tynemouth, and of Thomas Hodgson Archer Hinde, Esq., now of 
Coombe Fishacre, Devonshire. 



^6 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



the lightest down to the coarsest quill feather, to arransje his background so as to detach 
from it in the most telMng way the fine shaped, delicate shaded form of his model, and to 
do this with the greatest economy of labour, and the simplest array of lines. Finally, besides 
being the faithfuUest of copyists, and the most skilful of vvood engravers, he was able to bring to 
the representation of ' these beautiful and interesting aerial wanderers of the British Isles ' (as he 
styles them) a quality greater than either of these, that unlessoned insight which comes of loving 
them, the knowledge that often elevates an indifferent workman into an artist, and without 
which, as may be seen from the efforts of some of Bewick's followers, the most finished technical 
skill and the most highly trained trick of observation produce nothing but an imago tnor/if:. 
Tliese birds of Bewick, those especially that he had seen and studied in their syh'an haunts, are 
alive — they swing on boughs, they alight on wayside stones, they flit rapidly through the air, they 
seem almost to utter their continuous or intermittent cries, they are glossy with health and 
freedom, the}' are alert, bright-eyed, watchful of the unfamiliar spectator, and ready to dart off if 
he so much as stir a finger ; and as Bewick saw them so we see them, with their fitting back- 
grounds of leaf and bough, of rock or underwood — back-grounds that are often studies in them- 
selves." 

His pupil Jackson says : — ■ 

" Bewick's style of engraving, as displayed in the Birds, is exclusivel)' his own. He adopts 
no conventional mode of representing texture or producing an effect, but skilfully avails himself 
of the most simple and effective means which his art affords of faithfully and efficiently repre- 
senting his subject. He never wastes his time in laborious trifling to display his skill in execu- 
tion ; he works with a higher aim — to represent nature ; and consequently he never bestows his 
pains except to express a meaning. The manner in which he has represented the feathers in 
many of his birds is as admirable as it is perfectly original." 

Bewick made himself, as we have seen, the beautiful water-colour drawings 
studies for the birds. They formed part of his daughter's bequest to the 
Newcastle Museum of Natural History. When they were exhibited in 
London, in 1881, their exquisite delicacy was a revelation to his admirers, 
and their beauties were ably described b}- Mr. F. G. Stephens, who says : — 

"The charming and piquant 'Kitty Wren' ^ ^ 

— a little gem of spirit and draughtsmanship, 
among the finest things of its kind — was hardly 
ever surpassed even by Bewick himself. This 
drawing is dated 'October, 1794,' and gives a 
perfect view of the widely-enjoyed cut at its best 
in the form of the original study. As a picture it 
is noteworthy for the warm, pearly tints of the 
purple and subdued grey on the throat of the 
plump little creature, which is all compact of form 
and proportion, a kind of feathered mouse, the 
'picture ' of energy, enlivening to the utmost a 
little body. Further, as to colour, observe the 
golden bronze-like lustre on its russet back, where 
the plumage is barred with lighter streaks of the 
same nature, and banded with what is almost 
black. Here the woodcut, fine as it is, is very 
inferior to the drawing, and the student of Bewick's art will be grateful to the ladies who have 
granted this opportunity for seeing the works together to the enhancement of his ideas of the 
powers of their Unher."— Notes on JBewick, by F. G. Stephens. 

"The ruling element of Bewick's art, technical and inventive, is sincerity. His extreme 
simplicity, or, to be more precise, his straightforwardness, is hut one of the manifestations of his 
ever dominant inspiration. He always drew what he saw, and 1 think it probable that he never 
drew, or, what is similar, he never painted anvthing he had not seen and thoroughly understood. 
The fund of knowledge thus secured and displayed, for it is obvious to me that he made himself 
understand everything he thought fit to draw, was employed at all times and with the utmost 




The Kitty Wken. 
(In the Editor's collection.) 



TAILPIECES. 



57 




A Pair of Herons in a Northern 
Burn. (Now in the Editor's collection.) 
The exquisite block from which this im- 
pression is taken formed orio^inally the 
tailpiece to the fable of " The Horse's 
Petition to Jupiter," at page 303 of the 
edition of the Select Fables published by 
Emerson Charnley in 1S20. 



fidelity. He seems to have had so much reverence for his work, and so much humility in the 
face of nature, that he became the counterpart of another English master in small, William 
Hunt, the water-colour painter, who, although one of the first men in the world in that peculiar 
class, was frequently heard to say, ' I almost tremble* when I sit down to paint a flower.' But, 
so far as design goe=, and nothing in art is higher, Bewick far surpassed Hunt in the abundance, 

as well as in the quality, scope, richness, and depth 
of his inventions. Out of this sincerity of mind 
was developed that veracity of execution which, 
being swayed and directed by rare analytical 
powers, enabled him to select from innumerable 
details and bye-matters the dominant and essential 
features of every subject on which he employed 
himself. Simplicity, sincerity, veracity, the power 
of selection, and never-failing fidelity to nature, 
which was so complete that it would be easy to 
persuade one's self Bewick was incapable of seeing 
what was insincere and unfaithful — these are the 
qualities and powers which, illustrated by a sense 
of homely beauty of the corresponding kind, pro- 
duced a mode of art which is manifestly so great 
in respect to style that, from the little cuts in Gay's 
Fables, which were the works of his youth, to the 
Birds, of which the best specimens are here, hardly 
one is not a treasure of grave yet graceful design. 
Thus it happened that this son of a north-country 
farmer, bred by a burnside, trained in a dingy 
back-shop, living in a primitive fashion, and hale, diligent, and uncorrupted, often produced in 
the compass of an inch or two of boxwood, compositions of which neither Raphael, Stothard, nor 
Flaxman would have been ashamed, so elegant, naive, and animated are they, embodying all 
simplicity and all learning that are proper to them. Thus, the large ' domestic cock ' is such a 
masterpiece of style that if it had been carved by a Greek in marble it could hardly have been 
finer." — Notes on the Bewick Collection i?i 1880, (pp. 14, I 5 ), by F. G. Stephens. 

Of Bewick's tailpieces his admirers feel they can hardly speak too highly. 

At page 16 of the "Notes'' 
on Thomas Bewick, Mr. Stephens, 
writing on this block, says : — 

"Innumerable instances might be 
cited of Bewick's pathetic force in design ; 
the vignettes and tailpieces of the British 
Birds are wealthy in this respect. It was 
well said that there is 'a moral in every tail- 
piece, a sermon in every vignette.' Among 
these is the famous one {.\o. 126) of the 
lean and gaunt ewe nibbling at the stump 
of a birch broom in a landscape of starving 
snow and bitter cold, while her trembling 
lamb vainly sucks at the empty udder of 
its mother. The boys in the Birds who are 
playing at soldiers, while they are bedizened 
in ragged finery and mounted on a row of 
tombstones, are among the sardonic satires, 
of which few designers produced better 
instances than Bewick. The panting stag 




The Panting Stag. Select Fables. (Now in the 
Editor's collection.) Formerly lent by J. W. 
Ford, Esq., to the Fine .Xrt Society. For a 
similar design see Crawhall's Fisher s Garland, 
1864, page 1S7 ; also, Hastie's Reading Made 
Easy (Angus, Newcastle, 1799), page 115, 
" The Foolish Stag." 



* Mr. Austin Dobson says there is no indiscretion in now adding that Miss Bewick's very 
literal, and filially indignant comment upon the above was :— " Thomas Bewick trembled none ! " 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



waitinc for brecith that it may drink ac^ain at the well-known stream is one of the most touching 
of his designs; so likewise is the broken hull of a fishing boat,* whiih we notice below ; the 
sea gulls fishing on the margin of the lonely shore; the stormy petrel, ' half floating and half 
flying' over the ever-moving and melancholy waste of waves, is another; the frightened culprit 
seeing ghosts in every twilight hedge, may be added to a list, which every student may extend 
for himself." 

Mr. Ruskin has again and again, in his lectures, reverted to Bewick in a 
gradually increasing ratio of appreciation. In one passage he says that " with- 
out training, he is Holbein's equal ; " in another, " I know no drawing so 
subtle as Bewick's since the Fifteenth Century, except Holbein's and Turner's." 
He recommends all art students to study him, and says, "the plumage of his 
birds is the most masterly thing ever yet done;" and, again, " his vignettes 
show intellectual power of the highest order." He tells us that " on his 
Northumbrian hill-sides Bewick grew into as stately a life as their strongest 
pine," and speaks of a passage from Bewick's autobiography — a work which 
he recommends all his pupils to read — as a " piece of consummate and un- 
changing truth, concerning the life, honour, and happiness of England." No 
one has ever spoken nobler words of Thomas Bewick than Mr. Ruskin, and 
every thought that emanates from that com- 
bination of a brilliant mind and a loving heart, 
which we all gratefully recognise in our Master, 
is precious in itself, and pregnant with food for 
our reflection ; yet we feel that, for once, we must 
enter a protest against one conclusion Mr. Ruskin 
has drawn with regard to Bewick's illustrations 
of life. He says, in the lecture on Miss Kate 
Greenaway's drawings, that it is terrible to note, from the fact that Bewick 
invariably drew children in mischief, the depressing and neglected conditions 
under which the children of the poor were reared in former days. Now, we nmst 
first draw attention to the fact that Bewick's boy scenes are generally drawn 
from his own experiences in childhood, and his j'outh was not passed under 
depressing social circumstances. Could any children be happier than the boys 
building a snow man ? He and the lads riding on the tombstones in Oving- 
ham Churchyard were receiving a liberal education from the clergyman of the 
parish. The child pulling the pony's tail, while " a neglectful nurse is just 
discovering its danger," as some one has expressed it, was his own little 




(hi the Editor's collection.) From 
Davison, of Alnwick. 



* For the hull of a broken boat see note No. 201, " Bewick Sale Blocks," in this volume ; 
also, on same subject, consult Nos. 19S and 1 99, where a horse standing in the rain is given, quite 
as pathetic as the tailpiece of the " Pensioners," two old horses standing in a downpour, against 
which Mr. Ruskin has noted, in his copy of the British Birds at the St. George's Museum, at 
Sheffield, as "highest possible quality — an amazing achievement in engraving and for feeling of 
melancholy in rain." 



GRIM HUMOUR. 



59 



brother John, and his very far from neglectful mother, a mother who could 
teach Latin, and at the same time was the careful housewife of a well-to-do 
yeoman ! 

And, again, Bewick may have deemed, what many a robust-minded 
North-countryman still deems, that mischief and " pranks " are the natural 
outcome of healthy animal life in school-boys, and are generally the evidence 
of high spirits and fire, not depression or depravity. We well remember a lady 
who was proudly watching the rather troublesome gambols of her boys in a 
stackyard, where the haj'stack of the year was being built, remarking to a 
working-woman beside her, who was also a near and friendlv neighbour,—" I 
fear my boys are very mischievous, Mrs. Cockburn.'' " Nay, missus, never 
you mind that," was the reply; "the hempyest* lads aye turn out the best 
men, you know." 

But, to return from this digression. It would be superfluous for the 
Editor to dwell on the many wonderful traits of character betrayed by Thomas 
Bewick in his works, when so many abler critics — quoted in these pages — 
have enlarged on them already. His close observation, which nothing ever 
escaped, his love of nature, his stern morality, his kindly sympathy with the 
young, his pitiful tenderness for the old, his keen appreciation of humour, all 
have been expatiated on at length in these pages. But one point has not yet 
been touched upon^a point which the Treatise on Engraving and nearly all 
his critics have alluded to, and which, though but a trifling adjunct to a char- 
acter so rich, solid, and varied as his, should not be altogether omitted by any 
biographer anxious to bring the whole man as he really was, distinctly before 
the reader's mind. This trait was a certain deep and abiding sense of grim 

/,. humour, occasionally de- 









scending into coarseness, 
dashed with bitterness when 
he depictured it. which 
showed that his imagina- 
tion could enter into evil 
as well as good, darkness as 
well as light. 

^Vhile in this vein, a 
curious fable, with a most 
extraordinary illustration to 
it, was written by him for his Fables of ^-Esop, which, however, he was 
dissuaded from publishing, and it only appeared for the first time at the end of 




(From the Bt-wick Sak', 221.) 



' Hempy " is \orth-cuuntry for spirited .ind mischie 



6o 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



his Memoirs bv Himself* A horrible, and what many will deem an exces- 
sively vulgar illustration of the same mood — but undoubtedly one from his 
own graver, and a copy of his own handwriting — is given on the preceding 
page, the Editor having been advised to publish it, and venturing to think 
that a determination to give as far as possible a faithful picture of the whole 
man, and all his ways and thoughts, is a sufficient excuse and a full justifi- 
cation for doing so. 

Each edition of the British Birds rose steadily in price, and we may here 
subjoin some unpublished letters on the value of the different editions : — 

[Addressed to] "WiLI.IAM BOVD, E^sq., NEWCASTLE, 

Saville Row. 2i J^any., 1817. 

Mv Kind Fkienp, — I have received your card requesting me to inform you if 1 had been 
able to procure a set of the British Birth on imperial paper, which you do me the honor of 
wishing to place in your library. I shou'd have felt great pleasure had it been in my power to 
meet your wishes in this respect ; but I am sorry to find this cannot be done, for I have none of 
that size on hand, neither do 1 know how to procure a copy. I send you a set of the Birds on 
royal paper, which I wish you to examine at your leisure, and if the impressions appear to you 
to be any better than those you have, 1 will with pleasure exchange books with you ; or shou'd 
you wisii to look thro' the few sets I have now left on 1^" you shall be welcome to pick and 
choose from amongst them whichever you maj' like. I do not think that any of the former 
editions are better than those lately printed; but the public in general are pleased to think 
differently from me, and this I cannot help. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obliged & obedt. 

Thomas Bewick." 

Mr. Boyd took this copy of the British Birds (with very fine impressions) 
on royal paper, and inserted this letter within the first volume. It is now in 
the possession of his son, Edward Fenwick Boyd, together with his royal paper 
copy of the History of Qimdriipcds (Edition 1824) in which the following 
letter is inserted : — 

[Addressed to] "Wm. Bovn, I^sqr. 

SiK, — P'rom an extreme desire that you should have such a copy of the History of 
Ondrupeds \sic\ as you like, I have sent you a dozen books to pick and chuse [.«'c] from. 

I am. 
Sir, 
g Juney Your obliged & obedt- 

1824. Thomas Bewick." 

But Mr. Boyd does not seem to have rested satisfied without possessing an 
imperial paper set also, and, at last, copies of that unusual size, both of the 
British Birds, History of Quadrupeds, and ./Esop's Fables (2) were added to 
his library. The letter on the opposite page throws light on the price of these 
choice impressions at that time. 

* One of the tailpieces, representing a demon driving a man in his cart under a gallows, 
was a picture of Bewick's coal merchant, who had been cheating him. The portrait was so life- 
like, and the moral so evident, that when Bewick showed it to the guilty man, he was so 
frightentd that he fell on his knees, confessed his thefts, and begged for pardon ! 



BANK NOTES. 



6i 



" To Wm. Bovd, Esq., 

Bank. 
Mr. Boyd. 

Dr Sir, — I herewith inclose a Receipt for your Bool:s, accompanied with my warmest 
thanks for this and many favors experienced at your hands. 

I am, 

Dr. Sir, 

Your obliged and obedient, 
5 Janry., 1822. ^ Thom.^S Bewick." 

[On a receipt stamp, twopence.] 



'■3 



Newcastle, 5 Jamy., 1S22. 



Received of William Boyd, Esqre-. the sum of three pounds three shillings for an imperial 
set of the History of British Birds with Supplement. 

Thom.as Bewick." 

[The volume in which this letter is inserted is now in the possession of 
the Venerable Wm. Boyd, Archdeacon of Craven, and, from the date, relates to 
an earlier impression than the 100 copies on imperial paper, printed, according 
to Mr. Geo. Clayton Atkinson, in 1825.] 

Mr. Beilby, his partner, had been in the habit, as we have seen, of writing 
the letterpress for their books, as his share of the work, besides engraving a 
great deal on copper ; and, when the partnership was dissolved, Bewick tells 
us, in his iJ/^wo//'i' of himself, that he was much retarded in the figures and 
vignettes for the water-birds by being often obliged to lay that work aside 
to execute various other orders for wood engraving, and also to carry on 
the general work of the shop for his town customers, particularly writing- 
engraving, which he tells us he was -obliged to learn after Mr. Beilby left him. 
The most interesting part of this latter kind of work he found to be the plates 
for bank notes. A five-pound note for the Carlisle Bank* attracted much 
notice. It was done at the request of George Losh, Esq.,f who was connected 
with that bank, and wished him to make one that could not easily be forged. 

" I had at that time never seen a ruling machine, nor the beautiful engine-turning lately 
brought into use by Perkins, Fairman, and Heath, which were at that time, I believe, utterly 
unknown. I, however, proceeded with my plate, and my object was to make it look like a 
woodcut, and in this, tho' a first attempt, I succeeded, and the number of impressions wanted 

were sent to Carlisle. Soon after this, I was told by Sir J. F , Bart., that his brother, who 

held some office under Government, and was much with the I-^ing — George III., whose curiosity 
was insatiable as to everything relative to the arts — had got one of these bank notes. Sir J. 
F 's brother showed it to the King, who greatly admired and approved of it." 

About two years after this, in the year 1801, enquiries were made from 
the Bank of England about his process, whether he used wood or copper, etc. 



• The beautiful original plates for this bank note are given in this volume. Plates Nos. II. 
and III. 

t Of Benton Hall. He came from Cumberland, and was grandfather of William and James 
Anderson, Esqrs., of Jesmond and Newcastle. Bewick did book-plates for some of this family 
and their relations, the Andersons of St. Petersburg. 



62 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



He was ach'ised by a friend not to give them any information, and, though he 
seems to have done so, the correspondence at tliat time came to nothing. He 
continues : — • 

" It may perhaps be well, when I am on the subject of bank notes, to pass over a number of 
years, and come down to the year 1818, when a commission was appointed to investigate the 
business of forgery, and to endeavour to prevent it for the tuture. Some time previous to this, I 
was emplo\'ed by my friend, John Baile}', Esq., of Chillingham,* to engrave plates to prevent a 
re]ietition of the pen and inlv forgeries which had been committed upon the Berwick Bank, which, 
it had been found, had been better imitations than couM be made from copperplates. In this I 
succeeded ; and, also, by a simple process, on the plates I engraved for the Northumberland 
Bank." (See Plates VIII. and IX.) 

The plates for the Berwick Bank are given here, Nos. IV., V., and VH. 
One, evidently spoilt (No. VL), is interesting, as showing Bewick's work in 
progress, his method of beginning, etc., and his indomitable perseverance. It 
is evidence, too, of the sorely tried patience he so pathetically described in his 
letter to Mr. Bailey. The second is the face of the bank note as sent to Mr. 
Bailey ; and the third is the back of it. It will be observed that Bewick 
claims the right of having first suggested the idea of the Government stamp 
on the back of notes being made, by their intricacy, a means of detecting 
forgery. 

The original letters which follow throw much light upon this subject. 
They were addressed by Thomas Bewick to his friends, ]\Ir. and Mi<s Bailey, 
of Chillingham, and are now published for the first time, by the kind permis- 
sion of J. Bailey Langhorne, Esq., — who lent them to the Editor — and John 
Bolam, Esq., of Berwick, who lent the one which has been lithographed as a 
specimen of Bewick's style of handwriting. 

"Newcastle, 25M Scpt.^ 1S13. 

Dear Sir, — I am sorry I have not been able to get you a couple of impressions thrown off 
in blue & red before this time, for as soon as I told my printer of 3'our large obliging order, he 
began to set-too of drinking, & was incapable of printing an impression from any plate, must 
\jic\ less yours, which requires some attention in the printing, & without which the white lines 
is sure to be blurred. This chap will continue at work & taste no liquid but water for the space 
of six weeks or so, & then (like the pitmen) he must have his skin lowsaid. My attempting to 
prevent this is useless — he goes on quite crazed for a time & I cannot help myself. 

Mr. Langhorn or Mr. Baiie)' sent us a box on thursdaj' morning containing 5,000 notes — 
3,000 of which is one pound notes to be printed with red, & the other two thousand £^ notes to 
be printed with blue. I have not open'd out the parcels as yet, but no doubt the number are 
right. I have no doubt about the notes looking well done with those colours, but I fear much 
that they will corrode the plate and make it wear much sooner away than the black ink woud 
[sic'\ do. I know that those colours eat plain copperplates into innumerable small porous holes, 
& if they take hold of the thin white lines, my fear is that they will break down. If I had 
thought of their being printed with red or lilue I cou'd easily have done the white lines strong 

* To whom the letters which follow were addressed, and who, besides being a partner in 
the bank at Berwick, was land steward to Earl of Tankerville, and lived at Chillingham. It was 
when st.iying with him, as we have seen, in 1789, that Bewick made his sketch for the Chilling- 
ham Wild Bull, and to him /he first copy on vellimi of the only ten printed before the block split 
was given. It is now in the Editor's possession, and beneath it is written "Mr. Bailey," in 
Bewick's well-known autograph. (See " Chillingham Bull," page 46.) 



BANK NOTES. 



63 



enough to bear any kind of printing ink. I have enclosed 4 impressions in blue & red, the 2 
printed upon soft, or slightly gum'd paper, 3'ou will see, look middling well, but not so well as 
black impressions, & those two printed upon vour notes do not please me at all — the fault I am 
not yet clearly able to discover — whether the fault lies in 3'our hard gum'd paper, or in my oil 
being badly boiled, or the ink not properly mixt or ground up, I am in doubt about ; but I will 
accurately assertain these matters in a short time, & will endeavour to get a printer who will do 
my way, & not stick obstinately & stiffly to his own. One of the notes, you will see, is spoiled 
in an attempt to do a faint impression, somewhat similar to the one in black which I sent you 
before. 

I am, dear Sir, your obliged & obedt- 
(Turn over for Miss Bailey.)" " THOMAS Be«ICK. 

[Mem. — The other sheet for her, and the address to her father, is wanting.] 



"Newcastle, 29M Sept., 1S13. 
Dear Sir, — I have just rec'd j'our letter, & hasten to save the post with an answer. The 
nctes done from the plate cut in two & the paper wetted with a sponge will surely quite save the 
stamp entire, & the notes may be done without delay if Mr. Langhorn or the Gentm of the Bank 
please to send them back, for the whole were return'd to Berwick yesterday. My botcher had 
done 500 with red, the worst printed job I ever saw, either in my shop or in any other ; the faa 
is, he cannot, or will not, mixt colour'd ink ; but he can do an3-thing with black, and perhaps 
tolerably well. My other printer is from home at present, hut will return whenever I send for 
him. I will try what kind of red and blue ink he can make before I set him to work, if the notes 
are returned to me. I dare say that you will see that the plate is done to suit the purpose for 
which it is intended ; it might indeed have been done better, & I know I can still ver}' greatly 
improve upon the plan, so as to appear still to throw greater obstacles in the way of forgery. I 
cannot indeed do that, or any other job, quickl}-, as my e)'es tire, and oblige me to leave off. 
I am bent upon letting no one see either my tools 
cou'd get a peep at my proceeding" "*'" -^ '■■■' — ''" 



I am, dear Sir, your obliged & obcdi- 
John Bailey, Esq., Chillingham, by Belford." Thomas Bewick. 



"Newcastle, bth Dechr.. 1S14. 
Dear Miss B.4ILEY, — It is with a considerable degree of painfull feelings that I address 
you thus, as it will probably be the last time I shall ever have a right to call you by this name 
again. I most ferventlj- wish and hope that health and happiness may uninterruptedly follow the 
change.* I had read but halfway down the ist page of your kind letter untill I was obliged to lay 
it aside, to attend to some Ladies who gave me a call, and I was otherwise prevented from taking 
it up again soon. I was, however, wondering all the time what it cou'd be that Miss Bailey was 
complimenting me about — 'well deserved honours,' 'future Fame,' ' Immortality,' &c. 'Says I 
to myself,' what can I have done now to draw forth all these strong prefaces to some new compli- 
ments, which I was not conscious of having deser'^'ed ? It was, however, not long before I saw 
into the intent and meaning of the whole ; and I did not wonder at it, it is all of a piece with the 
partiallity and friendship I have long experiensed from your Father, and yours is perhaps equally 
ardent, but only of a shorter date. I shall, however, remember your scold; and 1 feel I ought to 
do so, for I have got no good by sitting late at work by candlelight doing such a lot of coarse 
jobs, for they have been the cause of giving me a succession of colds, 'till I was obliged at last to 
keep the house after dinner for sometime past, and this is the first time I have felt myself able to 
attend all da}^ till night at the shop. The doing some of these jobs, such as Bottle Moulds, is 
very hard work, and heated me very much. There is more labour and exertion used in doing 
them than there is in breaking stones for a Turnpike Road, and the work is full as stupid ; but 
the}' are jobs from Friends, and, coarse as thej' are, I think nobody except Mr. Beilby and myself 



Miss Bailey was engaged to be married to Mr. Langhorne, her father's partner in the Bank. 



64 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



can do them. I have spent my aTternoons and evens^- in compiling ^sofs Fahles^ and in the 
forenoons in drawing finish'd designs on the wood. This to me is a delightful! employment ; 
indeed I think I pursue it with an ardour and enthusiasm that borders upon being crazey. I am 
supposing that the rising generation, to whom I intend to dedicate the Book, may gather some- 
thing from it that may lay a foundation of virtue and patriotism that will stick by them thro' life. 
At h-a^t my very hearty attempt to lay such a foundation shall not be awanting, and I hope only 
partially to succeed, to think that one in ten or 20 might profit by my labours ; then they will not 
have been bestow'd in vain. How ardently do I wish that truth and integrity may be the constant 
guides to men ; and as to the other more amiable sex, may health eternally blush their cheeks, 
and virtue their minds. I will not neglect the supplement to the Birds; and if my present health 
and vigour continue any length of time, I shall, I hope, with energy go a Jishing also. But, be 
these things as they may, I shall always remember the commands you have laid upon me. I am 
pleased to hear you have had Mr. Nicholson with you, and also more pleased to find that he has 
to visit Chillingham again to exercise his talent upon a likeness of your Father. This is a 
business that must be done. I am always pleased with the thouts S^sic~\ of meeting Mr. Nicholson 
anywhere. I was, however, always pleased at Chillingham, even without any society at all thro' 
the Day, and an ample amends used to be made for the want of it at Night. I cou'd sit or wander 
about the Dean alone from 6 in the morning till 6 at night and never think the time long. Along 
the park wall had also its charms ; but tell your Brother that the seat upon which he cut NB 
(1813) was down the last time I was there, and that I was obliged to sit upon a cold stone. But 
cold as it was, it did not hinder me from thinking that some person might sit there, with the mind 
emploj-ed in the same wa}' as mine, 10,000 years hence. I am glad to hear of your Father's gL>od 
health, Mr. Nicholson's, and your own, and if no kind of acid had been discovered to mix up with 
this news I shou'd have liked the draught the better. Mr. and Mrs. Beilb)- are, I believe, both 
well. He sometimes calls in, but I think — at least I cannot divest my mind of a suspicion — that 
he comes by a kind of stealth to see me. He does not know that my respect for him is unabated, 
and that I wou'd not have deserted him even had he gone blind You do not need to care a pin 
either what the good Lady may say or think of you ; I think such like good ladies are far beneath 
your notice. The cold upon me, and the cold weather, has kept me out of the Garret, where alone 
I can do the Bank Note ; but I have now got a stove put up in it, and hope soon to have the plate 
done. Be so good as to give my best respects to your Father and Brother ( I hope he has got the 
lamp before this time), compt:^- to Mr. Jobson, and to Dr. and Mrs. Thomas, wishg- you all the 
compts. of the season. All at my fireside are well ; and my lasses have promised me that they 
will get soon up on Christmas Day in the morning, and sing their Mother and me a Christmas 
Carol ; and 'God rest you, merry Gentlemen, let nothing you dismay,' &c., is now in rehearsel, 
and I expect we shall hear it in the good old way before we get out of bed. Miss Cully* is here, 
and I am told she intends giving me a call, but I have not yet seen her. 

De'c. 7-^-1 wou'd not seal up this letter last night, in expectation of getting the Basket with 
3-our kind present from the Wooler Carrier. I sent several times for it last night as well as this 
forenoon, but my Boy could never see him. He however sent the Basket to our shop before our 
dinner time to-day. It contained two fine fowls, for which we can only thank you ; the basket 
also contained poor little David's mighty bunch of Quills. I meant to sell these kind of quills 
for him ; but I find they buy them cheap and sell them very dear. If I remember right they cyive 
6d. a hundred, and sell them dressed 3 for a penny. Be so good as to give, in return, my 'kind 
love ' to David, and also to Wm. and )'our girls, fur they were all very obliging and civil to me. 
But I fear I shall tire you; you must pardon me, for I think it a kind of last letter or farewell 

I am, dear Miss Bailey, your obliged & obednt- 

TiioMAS Bewick. 

P.S. — I call'd in upon Mrs. Alcock the other day to enquire after the Misses Greenwells, the 
eldest of whom, I understand, lodged with her ; but she is gone, and is now staying with her 
Cousin, Mrs. Newton. Mrs. Alcock informs me that she is pretty well in health, but has a bad 
scorbustic leg, which prevents her looking after a situation. The younger sister is with a milliner 
at Nottingham. Mrs. A. says they have only a small income left to live upon. Poor Girls, I 
believe they were robbed. 

Miss Baile}^, Chillingham, by Belford." 



* Eleanor, daughter of Matthew Cully, E?q., of Akeld. Northumberland, afterwards the wife 
tf Henry Morton, Esq., of Biddick, Co. Durham, and an intimate friend of Miss Bailey's. 







^.<^C.>^^^-/^ ^j^^^^w^/^/-^ 



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^^-.^ >4^^^^ -^ — . -^A^^^^ A^Xti^^v- -^^^^^t^ w i^>i:^Q.^ 










^^^.^o*^^ (^^3^^.^^^^_ 



LETTERS. 



"Newcastle, 5//; Fely., 1818. 
Dear Sir, — I have had a /^;V^«//v busy time with the notes for the Northumberland Bank ; 
for, not knowing that my first two plates wou'd so soon wear out, I felt taken by surprise that 
5,000 finished one of them and 7,000 the other, and w^as much grieved to find that their demand 
for a fresh supply was urgent in the extreme. We have, however, by working unremittingly late 
and early, Sunday and Warday [i/r], very nearly finished two plates, and with which we expect to 
be at work on Monday morning — if our printer is well enough to stand to the work ; if otherwise, 
I shall feel a continuation of the extreme anxiety with which the New Year has set in afore me. 
I find we must instantly set to work with other 2 new plates, and these, from the manner in which 
we shall engrave and etch them, shall print almost till doomsday. As soon as these are done — and 
I think that will be nearly about a month (more or less) — then I shall use the same kind of 
e.xertions (if that time will suit you) to get your 20s. one clone. But there has been something 
ominous or unlucky hitherto in every thing I have had to do with " Berwick Bank." I think I 
have lost about ^ a year's work to no good purpose. However, I still hope for better in time to 
come. I think, as you intend to change your device, I would recommend the 20s. note to be 
done something like this — [here followed a sketch] — with the white cross hatching done 
slantingly like a net hanging over a view of Berwick. But I wou'd like well if you cou'd send a 
finished drawing, done so as to please the Gentlemen of the Bank, as I shall in that case have 
nothing to do but fall to work with it, and endeavour to give 3'ou and them satisfaction. The 
net-work I wou'd do with both white and black cross hatching, so as to cut out a pretty job for 
the imitation of (an}') either pen and ink, wood-cutting, or engraving villain to imitate it. I 
have long had it in contemplation to do bankers' plates in su;h a manner as to wear until they 
were tired at looking at the sameness — thousands and tins 0/ thousands of impressions, and not 
in the slight way you recommend. This, I hope, I shall accomplish when the notu neglected ! 
Fables are out of hand ; and I am fretted at the wearysorae and unforseen delays which have 
attended the publication of them. I hope to derive some assistance in the cutting the Fables 
from a young man who left me last September. As he expressed a wish to continue to work at 
them for me, I gave him a number of designs with him to London, which I had, on his acct., 
drawn on the wood with a finish and accuracy of fine miniature paintings, and flattered myself 
that I cou'd put a finishing hand to them when he returned them ; but he has sent me none of 
them back, and I fear he only intends to make a blaze about the Fables being of his doing, at fnv 
expense, in London. These are my conjectures, for I have often been served so before ; and 
I now find the more kindness that one shows to some kind of dispositions, the more injury they 
wish to do to their benefactors, who instead of serving him with gratitude, they wou'd, after 
every kindness shewn them, strangle you if they cou'd. I think there is only a minority of 
mankind good ; but we must take the world as it is, and not as we wou'd have it. I have neither 
had a Merry Xmas nor a happy New Year. The /irst A'ew }'ear's Gift was an acct. of 87 sets of 
the Birds, uninsured, having gone to the bottom of the sea, and I have strong fears that this loss 
is nothing to what is still hanging over my head. Yet in the midst of all these matters, with 
which I fear I have annoyed }'ou, I have the pleasure to inform you that I cannot be in better 
health. With best respects, etc., to Mrs. Langhorn, Mr. N. and Air. William, and the rest of my 
ChiUingham friends, 

I am, Dr. Sir, your oblig'd & obedt. 

Thomas Bewick. 
John Bailey, Esq., ChiUingham, by Belford." 



Mr. Bailey. "Newcastle, iZth May, 1819. 

My much esteemed old Friend, — It is now so long since I have heard anything 
like an authentic account of the state of your health, that my patience and anxiety will not permit 
me to be held in suspense any longer. Will you, therefore, either from your own pen or those of 
Mr. William or Mr. Nicholas, be so good as to drop me a line to satisfy me on this score ? I 
will rejoice to have a good account. My house at this time is like an hospital. The servt. girl 
sometime ago took ill, of what some people call'd an influenza, and my young folks nursed her 
untill she recovered. 'The youngest girl then took ill of a similar complaint ; then Bell was thrown 
down in a fever ; something of the same kind attacked myself, and I was, for two or three days, 
quite knocked up ; and now Jane is worse than any of us, and confined to her bed. 'Bell has got 
something of a relapse, and is also in bed, and the Poor Mother is worn off her feet with anxiety 
and attendance. This is but a gloomy kind of business to trouble you with ; I shall therefore 



bh 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



drop it, and hope things will change for the better. In your last letter to me, I think you 
expressed a wish to know what was doing about preventing Forgery on the Bank;* I shall 
therefore tell you all I know, and as I am certain it will please you to hear of anything 
favourable to myself, it is with pleasure that I can communicate such intelligence to you. About 
the 3rd of last month I received a letter from Dr. Wollaston, which begins by saying, 'without ' 
doing violence to my feelings, I cannot longer vvithold from you 'the gratifying information that 
your plan, &c., is among the number of Plans approved by the Committee,' &c. He goes on to 
sav that the one 'now in arrangment ' he thinks will be a 'disappointment,' because its chief 
excellence is in its superiority of engraving, and ' an immensity of delicate workmanship ; ' and 
remarks, that tho' ' this is pleasing, it is delusive,' because when an immense ' number of impres- 
sions are wanted, excellence of this description cannot' be supported. 'I am confident _v»!"'//«« 
will It resorted to, as it combines in a superiour degree the great requisites, difficulty of imitation, 
with uniformity.' He then goes on to inform me that the object of this (his) hint that I might 
prepare myself for a journey to London, on the ' probability of its being necessary ' for me to 
attend the Committee to develope more clearly ' the -whole plan of producing notes for circulation.' 
His letter is so kind and so flattering that I fear you would think me very vain were I to copy 
more from it. He informed me in his letter that the plate, which he believes will be delusive, 
would be two months before it would be done, and I believe they are now going on with mine ; 
but of this I am not certain, as I have not had any intimation of the business further from either 
Sir Joseph Banks or Dr. Wollaston, I never hear a word from Berwick on any subject, and am 
quite at a loss to know how my once kind nurse (when Miss Bailey) is in health. I shall ever be 
glad to hear of her being in health and spirits. 

1 am, Dr. friend, your obliged & obedt. 

Thomas Bewick." 

We must now pass on to a much more artistic department of Bewick's 
work, one on which he delighted to bestow infinite pains, and to enrich with 




Cut by Thomas Bewick for John Catnach, the partner of Davison, of Alnwick. (Lent by Robert 
Smith, Esq., M.D., who has inserted his arms.) Formerly in the Hugo collection. Hugo 
and E. Pearson (who gives an impression from an electro) seem to have been unaware that it 
was cut for Catnach, and merely call it a tradesman's card. 



* The Bank of England is evidently meant ; a Royal Commission had been appointed. 



BOOK BLOCKS. 



his most delicate delineation of foliage. I mean the blocks for book-plat ci 
with which he used occasionally to oblige his particular friends. On this 
subject Mr. Pearson sa^'s : — 

"The book vigfnettcs and armorial hearings are worthy of close observation. Many of these 
were done for Bewick's private and cherished friends. To him sucli souvenirs were not the 
subjects of mere professional toil ; they were labours of love ; he lavished his lu_^hest gifts on 
them. His exuberant fancy revelled in ingenious delineations, and his intimate acquaintance 
with natural scenery imbued his designs with a sort of artistic fascination,"* 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq.,M.D.) Cut by Thomas Bewick for Mrs. M. Angus, printer, New- 
castle. From the Hugo collection. 




Book Block. 

Cut for John Bell, of Newcastle, by Thomas Bewick. (Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) This 
blocl^was used on several of the rare typographical tracts published in Newcastle. Dr. Smith 
had Mr. Bell's name erased, and his own arms inserted on a movable block. From the Hugo 
collection. 



' See also "Notes on Bewick Sale Copperplates," Plate XMH., in this volume. 



68 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



On account of the labour bestowed upon them Bewick was in the habit of 
charging more for these book blocks than his ordinary prices. Mr. Hugo, in 
his Bewick C'lllertor, page ^2,},. catalogues amongst his autographs a " Letter 
in the handwriting of Aliss Bewick, but signed by Thomas Bewick, to R. E. 



^i-i^ ■■■■ «'^-,. . , aS- 







(In the Editor's collection.) From Davison, of Alnwick. 
We have never seen impressions from this rare and 
beautiful specimen of Thomas Bewick's book-plate 
work before we obtained the block. 



(In the Editor's collection.) From 
Davison, of .Alnwick. We have been 
unable to find impressions from this 
fine block. It is evidently Thomas 
Bewick's work. 





.AR.VIS of the .ADREY of K.NARESROROrCH. 

(Now in the Editor's collection.") Cut by Thomas 
Bewick for Har-^^raves' History of the Castle^ Town^ 
ajid Forest of Knaresborough^ pulilished in 1 782. 



(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., 
M.D.) From the Jupp col- 
lection. Mr. jupp had 
marked it, " By T. Bewick. 
Unfinished. For iMitchell, 
Newcastle. Bell arms." 



Croker, Esq., dated Newcastle Tyne, June 2b, 1822. Acknowledges the 
receipt of ^^"5 for engraving his arms, and his gratification that the work has 
met with his approbation." 



BOOK BLOCKS. 



tf) 



Mr. Croal Thomson says of this work : — " It has a pretty cut of a coat of 
arms (a rampant Hon) leaning against a tree. The border of the shield is 
simple, but being nearly all black, it contrasts vividly and charminglj' with 
the white ground on which the lion rears itself." This block was in the Rev. 
T. Hugo's collection before the Editor was fortunate enough to obtain it, and 
he says of it, this "is one of the loveliest cuts ever executed by Thomas Bewick 
for a local publisher," and in his Supplement, page 233, he gives an impression 
of it again, with the remark, " The arms of Knaresborough Priory, the Corn- 
wall arms, perhaps the finest cut that Bewick ever executed for a provincial 
publisher." 

In Hutchin.son's Hisiorv of Durham. Vol. II., page 508, is a copperplate 
signed by Beilby, 1785, of Hylton Castle. Thomas Bewick cut a wood block 
on a smaller scale from the same design, which was used to illustrate a small 
local (Sunderland) book of earlv date, where it is described as by Thomas 
Bewick ; also, in the Northern Jolni Bull, Vol. I., published by Fordyce, 




IIVI.TUN CaSILV. 



Dean Street, Xewcastle-upon-Tyne, in 1S30. This block became the property 
of Mr. Hugo, and at his sale was bought by Mr. \Vm. Hurrell, of Bishopwear- 
mouth, from whom it passed into the hands of Mr. Charles Lilburn, of Sunder- 
land. He allowed it to appear in the Legend of Hylton Castle, published in 
Sunderland not long ago. The first edition was from a stereo, the second 
from the wood block. Mr. Lilburn has kindly lent it to the Editor for this 
volume. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



As we have seen, Bewick did a great deal of work, and some of it was very 
beautiful, for William Davison,* the enterprising publisher of Alnwick, for 
whom Luke Clennell and Rei veley also engraved, and perhaps some others of the 
Bewick school. Davison was a man of fine taste, and high standing in his line 
of business, and the books that were issued from his press command good prices, 
and are much sought after now on account of their illustrations. Amongst the 
number we may mention The Hermit of Warkworth, Biirns^ Focms, B/air's 
Poems, Ferguson^ s Poems, and Adams' Poems, Buffon's Svstem of Natuvol 
History (four volumes). The Newcastle Rider, or Ducks and Green Peas, 
Service's Metrical Legends of Northnmherland, and a Natural History of 
British Quadrupeds, Foreign Quadrupeds, British Birds, Water Birds. 
Foreign Birds, Fishes and Reptiles, Serpents and Insects ; the last all pub- 
lished separately, in little volumes, in iSog.t 




The Winch Bkhiue o\ cr the Tees, near 
Middleton, County of Durham. 

Cut by Thomas Bewick. (In the Editor's collec- 
tion.) This cut first appeared in Cooke's 
Topography of tlie County of Durliam, also in 
B;iiley's View of t lie Agriculture of tlie Countv of 
Diir/inm, 1810, and was afterwards in the Hugo 
collection. 



(Now in the I'Mitor's collection.) Front 
Davi.son, of Alnwick. It appeared in a 
work published by him, Metrical Legends 
of Norttiumt/erlaiid, by James Service, 
pagfe 94. Several in that volume are by 
John Bewick, but this is probably by a 
pupil. 



* John Catnach fir=t fnunded this celebrated printing and publishing firm, and took Davison, 
who was also a chemist, into partnership. Catnach had good ideas, but was so unsteady in his 
liahits that he eventually had to sell his share to Davison, and afterwards started a business in 
Newcastle. Here his misguided conduct soon got him into trouble and debt, and he fled to 
London, eventually dying there, in great misery. His son, James Catnach, founded a very suc- 
cessful but peculiar business in the Seven Dials, printing penny illustrated accounts of the 
murder cases and scandals that took place in London during a long series of 3'cars. For further 
particulars see Mr. Chas. Hindley's Life and 'Junes of fames Catnach. 

f Davison was in the habit of carefully preserving his blucks from danger by using casts 
from them only, in his printing office. He is said to have stated that he had |)aid Thomas Bewick 
upwards of ;^5oo for wood blocks, and by way of realizing some of this outlay he published a 
quarto catalogue — now exceedingly rare — of impressions from "new specimens of cast metal 
<^rnaments," etc., which he was ready to supply at the prices affixed. Several small works in 
Scotland were in this way illustrated by Bewick "casts" that might not otherwise have attained 
such honour. We are inclined to think these "casts" were all stereotypes — as some of them 
the Editor has seen undoubtedly were — although electrotyping was invented at the very 



FABLES. 



Some exquisite wood blocks in Bewick's very best style were also cut by 
him for the Sportsman's Rcpositorv, but as this does not profess to be a com- 
plete catalogue of his works,* we 
must pass on to the next important 
volume issued by himself, viz., the 
Fables of yEsop. In 1812, this 
hitherto strong and powerful man, 
who had never known any kind of 
sickness, was laid aside by a very 
severe illness from which he was 
hardly expected to recover. f He 
gives us a vivid account in the 
Memoirs of his weakness, and as 
he lay helpless on his bed he re- 
volved in his mind the project 
of preparing a new set of blocks 
for illustrating a new edition of ^Fsop, and as soon as he recovered he lost 
no time in beginning the designs. 




The Fo.x .ani> the Gk.ai'es. 

Early stj'le. (Now in the Editor's collection.) This 
block was lent by J. W. Ford, Esq., to the Fine 
Arts Society, in 18S1, to illustrate their "Notes" 
on Thomas Bewick (see p. 16). 










liiiifnn,.,,; ml! 

The Dog in the Manger. 

Earlier style. Signed by T. Bewick. (Lent by Robert 
Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



The Windmill Hills at 
Gateshead were then famous 
for pure and bracing air, and 
were a favourite resort| for 
invalids from Newcastle. Here 
Bewick sought a change to 
recruit his health, and the 
satisfactory result of this ex- 
periment doubtless led to his 
determination to quit the old 
home in the Forth, where he 
had hitherto lived since his 
marriage, and remove his 
family to a house of his own 
at Gateshead, in a field which 



beginning of this century. Unlike Catnach, Davison lived respectably and prospered until he 
died (at the age of 77) in 1858, when all his valuable stock-in-trade, including 500 blocks 
by Bewick, were disposed of by auction, and the sale catalogue, from which some of this informa- 
tion is taken, is now very rare. 

* Those who wish to refer to a consecutive catalogue of Bewick's works may find one at the 
end of the " Notes " on the F'ine Arts Exhibition of Bewick's works issued in 1881. It is very 
complete and valuable. 

\ See a notice of this at a subsequent page on the subject of Miss Bewick. 

\ Now built over in every direction, and the air poisoned by the manufacture of chemicals. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



afterwards became a street, named West Street (No. 19), on the Durham Road. 
Here he dwelt for the remainder of his days, and his children after him, 
although he regularly walked every day over the Low Bridge, by the Sandhill, 
Side, and Dean Street, to attend as 
usual to his business in St. Nicholas' 
Churchyard. 

He now began sedulously to 
work at the,<^.s-o/ which he projected 
during his illness — but, notwith- 
standing the help of his son, Robert 
Elliot Bewick, whom he had taken 
into partnership on the 1st of 
January, 1812, and his two favourite 
pupils, Harvey and Temple, whose 
efforts to help him in forwarding 
the volume of Fables which he was 
ushering into the world he freely 




F..\BLE Cut. 

Intermediate style. (Lent by Roht. Smith, Esq., 
M.D.) From Soulsby's Office, Penrith. 
(Hugo's Collection, 435.) 



acknowledges — ill-health, copperplate work for the banks, and other orders, 
retarded the work, and the new volume of ^sop^s Fables was not published 
until I Si 8. 

All the designs and much of 
the letterpress for it were new, and 
the style of wood engraving adopted 
was much more elaborate and highly 
finished than in any of Bewick's 
works that had gone before; in fact, 
it may be described as in an alto- 
gether "later manner,'' but that 
manner is not so distinctively his 
own, and what it had gained in 
finish and refinement, it had lost in 
strength, simplicity, and vigour. 

We are fortunate in being able 
to contrast Bewick's different styles, 
and to illustrate his gradual develop- 
ment into a more pictorial and less 
conventional mode of treating his subjects, by the Fable cuts that are placed 
side by side on these pages, for the comparison of those that care to study them ; 
and if the student will turn over to a subsequent page, and examine the Fable 




FAiii.n Cut. 

Later style. fLent hy Robt. Smith, Esq., \f.D.) 
From Soulsby's Office, Penrith. (Htisjo's 
Collection, 433.) This and the precedin,^ one 
are very fine specimens of Thomas liewick's 
work. 



FABLES. 




Fable Cut. 

Later style. Cut by Thomas Bewick. (Lent by 
Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



cuts given beside the account of Harve}', he will then be in a position to com- 
pare the whole with his own edition oi ^Esop's Fables, and single out those 
cuts that may be reasonably attributed to Harvey's graver in that volume. 

The rugged, but kindly, ex- 
pressive, and very intelligent coun- 
tenance of Bewick, has been made 
familiar to us by many portraits, 
besides the very fine bust by Bailey, 
which was placed by public sub- 
scription in the Literary and Phil- 
osophical Institution of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. This bust is a noble 
and impressive likeness, notwith- 
standing the plainly indicated quid 
of tobacco, which Bewick insisted 
on retaining, according to his cus- 
tom, between his teeth and under lip. 
In 1708, a copperplate appeared by 
T. A. Kidd, after a painting by Miss Kirkley. A miniature, by Murphy, 
was engraved by T. Summerfield, and published in 1816, but it was not a 
very satisfactory performance. Nicholson, Bewick's pupil, drew a portrait of him, 
from which a much finer (line) engraving was executed by T. Ranson, a pupil 

of Kidd's. The fourth portrait, 
on copper, by J. Burnett — after a 
painting by James Ramsay — was 
published in 1817 ; it v,-as considered 
a pleasing likeness. Nicholson also 
made a drawing on the wood, which 
was " cut in " by Charlton Nesbit, 
and it appeared for the first time 
in Charnley's edition of the Select 
Fables, 1820. 

Another pupil (John Jackson) 
drew two portraits on wood, one 
for his own Treatise on Wood 
Engraving, the other printed in 
Bell's Catalogue. Lizars did a small 




Fable Cut. 

Later style. B)' Thomas Bewick. (Lent by 
Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



Steel plate, which appeared in Jardine's Natural History Library for 1843; 
and a woodcut appeared in Hou-itf s Journal, 1846. Ramsay had made, in 



74 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



jSz;, a small full length water-colour study,* from which was taken the well- 
known engraving by F. Bacon, first published in 1852. It appeared in Hugo's 




The Peacock. 
Latest style. (Now in the Editor's collection.) Formerly lent by J. W. Ford, Esq., to the Fine 
Arts Society to illustrate the " Notes " on a Loan Collection of Thomas Bewick's Works, 
1881, of which 300 copies were printed (see p. 33). It is more pictorial and altogether less 
conventional in treatment than the cut on the same subject given at p. 36 of this work. 

folio edition in 1870, in Mr. Pearson's quarto edition of the Select Fables, iSyq, 
and now, again (by the permission of the Rev. E. Pearson, to whom the plate 




The l)oi3 \^<i\^ THE Bull. 

Latett style. (In the Editor's collection.) F'ormerlv lent by J. W. Ford, Esq., to the Fine .-\itj 
Society, to illustrate the "Notes" on Thomas Bewick (see p. 16). 

belongs), in the large paper copies of tliis volume. An interesting water-colour 
portrait,! also by Nicholson, has been recently etched by the great Leopold 

• It is now in the possession of R. S. Newall, Esq., of Ferndene, Gateshead, 
t Now in the possession of Thos. Crawhall, Esq. 




.' A-'.Tr -■ =AA 



THOMAS BEWEC 



^■'■" 



HIS WORKSHOP. 



Flameng. The first fifty proofs had, as a vcmarquc, a copy of the " Old Hound," 
which was erased before the published copies were printed off, consequently 
these proofs are very valuable and much in request. A full length cabinet por- 
trait of Bewick, seated, by T. S. Good, was bequeathed by Miss Bewick to the 
Natural History Museum of Newcastle-apon-Tyne, and has not, hitherto, been 
engraved. A copperplate portrait, by Meyer, in the possession of the Rev. 
E. Pearson, has been kindly allowed by him to appear in this volume. 

Last, but not least, we come to an interesting picture of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne in oils, by Ramsay, called " The Lost Child." The artist has 
given in the foreground the figures of himself, his wife, and Thomas Bewick, 
listening to the bellman who proclaims the loss of a child. The barber from 
the shop at the corner is endeavouring to console the distracted mother, while 
one of the old streets, St. Nicholas' Church, and the celebrated belfry, towering 
in the background, are skilfully introduced. This picture was long in the pos- 
session of the late Robert Leadbitter, Esq., of Ryton-on-Tyne, and eventually 
became the property of J. W. Pease, Esq., of Pendower, who has most kindly 
allowed the Editor to have it etched for the frontispiece to the large paper 
copies of this volume. The eminent artist, Mr. C. O. Murray,* who is allowed 
to be amongst the first, if not the very first etcher of the day, undertook the 
commission, and has produced a work of art which must give pleasure to all 
who examine it. To have given the whole of the picture in so small a com- 
pass would have rendered Bewick's figure very diminutive and insignificant ; 
the artist has, therefore, skilfully selected part of the scene, which gives the 
story of the group in the foreground. Nothing can be more finished, delicate, 
and eflFective than the e.xecution of the work, or more e.xpressive than the 
manner in which Mr. Murray has seized the feeling of the picture. Some 
proofs before letters, on Japanese paper, signed in pencil by the artist, were 
taken off for the Editor ; then proofs before letters, unsigned, on both Japanesef 
and Creswick paper, after which all impressions will be "lettered" in the usual 
manner. 

The house is still standing in which, for more than fifty years, Bewick 
conducted his business, during wdiich time many able pupils and much 
admirable work issued from its walls. It may still be seen in St. Nicholas' 
Churchyard, and presents externally the same appearance as it did of old. In 
the later years of his life Bewick himself worked in the upper room, or 
" garret " (as he terms it in writing to Miss Bailey), the two windows of which 
may be seen in the roof, and here he kept his process of engraving bank notes 

* This artist's brother is now resident in Newcastle. 

t These Japanese proofs have been used for the frontispiece to the large paper copies of this 
volume. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



entirely to himself. Here the Duke of Northumberland and many gentlemen 
would visit him, and when they called he used to greet their entrance by 
removing his hat for a moment, and then, when that mark of respect was 
over, he would replace it immediately, as it was his custom always to wear it 
during the hours of labour. He constantly carried in his walks a stick, that 



.> V 




Bewick's Workshop in St. Nicholas' Chukchv-^rd. 

(From an electrotype of the woodcut which first appeared in the Treatise on Wood Engi avmg. ) 
Drawn and engraved by his pupil, John Jacl^son, in 183S. 

had been his brother's, and used carefully to place it on entering, in a certain 

corner of his workshop. One of the duties of the youngest apprentice was 

to fetch him a pitcher of fresh, cool drinking water from the neighbouring 

" pant." Jackson tells us : — 

"He was extremely regular and methodical in his habits of business. Until a few years cif 
his death he used to come to his shop in Newcastle, from his house in Gateshead, at a certain hour 
in the morning, returning to his dinner at a certain time, and, as he used to say, ' lapping up ' at 
night, as if he were a workman employed by the day, and subject to a loss by being absent a 
single hour. When any of his works were in the press, the first thing he did each morning, after 
calling at his own shop, was to proceed to the printers to see what progress they were making, 
and to give directions to the pressmen about printing the cuts. It is, indeed, owing to his 
attention in this respect that the cuts in all the editions of his works published during his life- 
time are so well printed. The edition of the Birds, published in 1832, displays numerous 
instances of the want of Bewick's own superintendence. Either through the carelessness or 
ignorance of the pressmen, many of t^e cuts are quite spoiled." — Treatise on Wood Engraving. 



VISIT TO EDIX BURGH. 



We may mention here, although it is not quite in the proper sequence of 
Bewick's works, that he executed some very fine woodcuts, signed " T. Bewick," 
for an edition of Goldsmith's ]'icar of WiiA-rficld, published by D. Walker, 

at Hereford, in 1798. The 
little volume in which they 
appeared, although it then 
professed to be "sold by all 
booksellers," has become so 
extremely rare that on the 
copy in the British Museum 
the former owner notes that 
it is the only copy he had 
ever met with, and the Editor 
has not seen any other. These 
wood blocks are preserved in 
very fine condition, and may 
be presented to the public at 
some future date. 

In 1822, a copperplate of 
the church at Ryton-on-Tyne, 
signed " T. Bewick & Son," 
was engraved for the rector, 
Dr. Thorp.* Mr. Croal Thom- 
son says it is one of the finest 
of Bewick's smaller plates. 

In August, 1823, Bewick 
and his daughter Jane visited 
Edinburgh. He was interested 
in the new lithographic pro- 
cesses of Senefelder, which he 
examined at Ballantyne and 
Robertson's printing office, 
and he was induced to make a 
hurried sketch on the stone one morning before breakfast. The design was a 
"Cadger's trot." From twenty to twenty-five prints from it were taken ofl 
the same day on various coloured papers, and then the sketch was obliterated 
from the stone. 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

This most beautiful cut is by Thomas Bewick, [t ap- 
peared in the Ready Rond to Learnings and was 
formerly in the Jupp collection. 



* It is not now in the possession of Dr. Thorp's family, and the Editor has been unable If 
trace it. 




LIFE OF THO^LiS BEWICK. 



Towards the close of Bewick's life he had many visitors, who have left on 
record the pariiciilars of their intercourse with him. Mr. J. E. Bowman and 
Mr. John F. Dovaston* visited him together in 1823 and in 1825, and, in 
remarking on his method of work, they say : — 

*' Here we saw his manner of producintif his beautiful art, and his nests of almost number- 
less drawers, each filled with one layer of finished blocks with their faces upwards, on many of 
whose maiden lineaments, fresh and sharp from the engraver, the ink-ball had never been pressed. 
His tools — many of his own contrivance and makintj — were various in sizes and sorts ; some broad 
trous^es for wide excavation, some narrow for fine white lines, and some many-pointed for parallels, 
which, either straight or wavy, he cut with rapidity by catching the first tooth of the tool in the 
last stroke, which guided it equi-distant with the former. Here he gave us his opinion of the 
old .ncthod of cross-hatching — a style now obsolete, and he said, useless, as every effect may be 
produced by parallel lines, broader or narrower, at greater or less distances, and in the lighter 
parts by a little sinking of the surface of the block. The latter is one of his own inventions, and 
by it a judicious pres'nian can prodnce every gradation of shade from ver}- black to nearly white, 
between which he preferred those of intermediate strength, being decidedly against a black 
impression. He very seldom engraved from any other copy than nature, having the bird (always 
alive, if possible) or other subject before him, and sketching the outline on the block, filling up 
the foregrounds, landscapes, and light foliage of trees at once with the tool, without being pre- 
viously pencilled. It was curious tt) observe his economy of boxwood. The pieces being circular, 
he divided them according to the size of his design, so as to lose little or none ; and should there 
be a flaw or decayed spot, he contrived to bring that into a part of the drawing that was to be left 
white, and so cut out. He said blocks, in durability of lines, incalculably out-lasted engravings 
on copper, which wear very much in cleaning for every impression^ with chalk. 

Bewick, as we have seen, was in early life devoted to angling, and must 
have had constant opportunities of observing the haunts and habits of fishes. 
He had drawn a set of fishes for Davison's Natural History, and it was natural, 
therefore, that he should feel an.xious to complete his own series of works on. 
that subject by a History of Fishes. After he retired (as he did about this 




(From the Bewick Sale, 222.) 

time) from the routine work of his shop in favour of his son, he began to 
devote himself in earnest to this project, and for the remainder of his life 
employed himself closelv at home, not only in filling up gaps in his History 
of British Birds, but in preparing blocks for the F^ishrs. The tailpieces 
especially occupied his attention, and many, by the extreme quaintness, 

* Of Westfelton, near Shrewsfairy. He wrote a paper in the Mtigazitw of S\itHi al History, 
Wil. HI., on the " Life, Genius, and Personal Habits of Bcwitk." 



DEATH OF HIS WIFE. 



7^ 



humour, and vivacity of their design, showed that there was no falling off in his 
imaginative and inventive faculties ; but, alas, the execution showed that the 
swift, powerful hand was beginning to lose something of its cunning. Many 
of these vignettes appeared — with some fishes — in the Appendix to his Memoirs 
of himself, published by his daughters, in 1862. One hitherto unpublished 
vignette, cut by Bewick at this time, may be seen in this volume ("Bewick 
Sale" blocks, 164). It shows the same characteristics that may be observed 
in the other vignettes in the Memoirs, viz., fecundity of inventiveness with 
feebleness of execution.* 

The death of the wife he so tenderly loved, "My Bell, " as he used affec- 
tionately to call her, took place in February, iS::6, and the severance of so 
close a tie must have tended to loosen the old man's hold on this life. Though 
surrounded by the loving attention of his devoted family, and continuing with 
steady perseverance his life-long habits of industry in wood-cutting, he did not 
long survive her. 

In the summer of that year he was suffering so severely from gout in the 

stomach that he was ordered to Buxton, and the waters there seem to have 

afforded him considerable relief. He was accompanied by his daughters Jane 

and Isabella, and, writing to tell Mr. Dovaston where they were, the latter 

started immediately to join them. He says : — 

" There were three windows in the front room, the ledges and shutters whereof he had 
pencilled all over with funny characters, as he saw them pass to and fro visiting the well. These 
people were the source of great amusement, the probable histories of whom, and how they came b\' 
their ailings, he would humorously narrate, and sketch their figures and features in one instant uf 
time. 1 have seen him draw a striking likeness on his thumb-nail in one moment, wipe it off with 
his tongue, and instantly draw another. We dined occasionally at the public table ; and one day, 
over the wine, a dispute arose between two gentlemen about a bird, but was soon terminated bv 
the one affirming he had compared it with the figure and description of Bewick, to which the other 
replied that Bewick was ne.xt to nature. Here the old gentleman seized me by the thigh with his 
very hand-vice of a grasp, and contrived to keep up the shuttlecock of conversation playfully to 
his highest satisfaction, though they who praised him so ardently little imagined whose eart 
imbibed all their honest incense." 

Mr. Dovaston also tells us : — 

"Bewick's powers of whistling appear to have been extraordinary. His 'ear,' as a musical 
feeling is called, was so delicately acute and his inflexorial powers so nice and rapid, that he could 
run in any direction or modulation the diatonic or chromatic scale, and even split the quarter 
notes of the inharmonic. Neither of which, however, did he understand scientifically ; though so 
consummately elegant his e.xecution, and his musical memory was so tenacious, that he couKl 
whistle through the melodies of whole overtures." 

In the following year, 1827,! Audubon, the great American naturalist. 



* This work on fishes U'as not, however, destined to reach completion. See the " Life of 
Robert Elliot Bewick " at a subsequent page. 

f The Editor's father and grandfather visited Mr. Audubon during his stay in Newcastle, 
and the former distinctly recalls the beautiful drawings of American birds hung round the room — 
occupied for the time by Mr. Audubon — above the late Mr. Bowman's shop, a bookseller who 
preceded Mr. Dodsworth in Collingwood Street. 



So 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



visited Newcastle, and immediately sought the acquaintance of Bewick. These 
two men not only loved Nature in common, and spent their lives in illustrating 
her, but both possessed that indomitable perseverance which conquers every- 
thing ; so that they must have instinctively felt the kindred nature of their 
minds. Audubon, after he had lost the drawings and studies which represented 
the physical endurance and strenuous labour of years, spent in the wilds of 
America, deliberately determined to retrace his steps, and patiently and 
doggedly undertook and achieved the reproduction of his work ! Such energy 
must have met with a responsive echo in the breast of Bewick ; and we wonder 
not, therefore, at the pleasure this meeting afforded them. Audubon has thus 
graphically recorded it for us : — 

"At length we reached the dwelling of the engraver, and I was at once shown to his work- 
shop * There I met the old man, who, coming towards me, welcomed me ivith a hearty shake of 
the hand, and for a moment took off a cotton nightcap, somewliat soiled by the smoke of the place. 
He was a tall stout man with a large head, and with eyes farther apart than those of any man that 
I have ever seen — a perfect old Englishman, full of life, although seventy-four years of age, active, 
and prompt in his labours. Presently he proposed showing me the work he was at, and went on 
with his tools. It was a small vignette, and represented a dog frightened at night by what he 
fancied to be living objects, but which were actually roots and branches of trees, rocks, and other 
objects bearing the semblance of men.f This curious piece of art, like all his works, was exquisite, 
and more than once did 1 feel strongly tempted to ask for a rejected bit, but was prevented by his 
inviting me up stairs, where he said I should soon meet all the best artists in Newcastle. 

"There I was introduced to the Misses Bewick, amiable and affable ladies, who manifested 
all anxiety to render my visit agreeable. Among the visitors 1 saw a Mr. Good, and was highly 
pleased with one of the productions of his pencil— a full-length miniature in oil of Bewick, well 
drawn, and highly finished. 

"The old gentleman and I stuck to each other, he talking of my drawings and I of his 
woodcuts. Now and then he would take off his cap and draw up his grey wursted stockings to 
his nether clothes ; but whenever our conversation became animated, the replaced cap was left 
sticking, as if by magic, to the hind part of his head, the neglected hose resumed their downward 
tendency, his fine eyes sparkled, and he delivered his sentiments with a freedom and vivacity which 
afforded me great pleasure. He said that he had heard that my drawings had been exhibited in 
Liverpool, and felt great anxiety to see sume of them, which he proposed to gratify by visiting me 
early next morning along with his daughters and a few friends. Recollecting at that moment huw 
desirous my sons, then in Kentucky, were to have a copy of his works on quadrupeds, I asked him 
where I could procure one, when he immediately answered, ' Here,' and forthwith presented me 
with a beautiful set." 

Another day, Audubon was in\-ited to breakfast with Bewick, and he 
tells us : — 

"The good gentleman, after breakfast, soon betook himself to his labours, and began to 
show me, as he laughingly said, how easy it was to cut wood ; but I soon saw that cutting wood 
in his style and manner was no joke, although to him it seemed indeed easy. His delicate and 
beautiful tools were all made by himself; and I may with truth say that his shop was the only 
artist's 'shop' that I ever found perfectly clean and tidy. 

"Another invitation having come to me from Gateshead, I found my good friend seated in 
his usual place. His countenance seemed to me to beam with pleasure as he shook my hand. ' I 
could not bear the idea,' said he, ' of your going off without telling you, in written words, what 1 
think of your Birds of America. Here it is in black and white ; and make of it what use you may, 



• He now worked in a private workshop in his own house. 

f The vignette appeared in Bewick's Memoirs of himsell, p. 134. 



REVISITS LOXDOX. 



8 1 



if it be of use at all.' I put the unsealed letter into my pocket, and we chatted on subjects 
connected with natural history. Nuw and then he would start and exclaim — ' Oh, that I were 
young again ! I would go to America too. He}' ! what a country it will be, Mr. .Audubon.' I 
retorted by exclaiming — ' Hev ! what a country it is already, Mr. Bewick.' In the midst of our 
conversation on birds and other animals he drank my health, and the peace of all the world, in 
hot brandy toddy ; and I returned the compliment, wishing, no doubt, in accordance with his 
sentiment?, the health of all our enemies. His d.iughters enjoyed the scene, and remarked that 
for years their father had not been in such a flow of spirits." 

In the summer of 1828 he revisited London with his two daughters on 
business connected with his books. He must have been gratified by an invita- 
tion from his brother artists, the engravers, to a pubhc dinner to be given by 
them in his honour. His strength, however, was faihng, and he did not feel 
equal to accepting this compliment. When his old friend, William Buhner, 
took him for a drive to the Zoological Gardens he could not even rouse himself 
to get out of the carriage to see the animals. He called on Audubon, and to 
Mr. Dovaston he wrote several very humorous letters on the artificial life of 
the " Cockneys, with the mass of whom, since he was amongst them half a 
century before, he thought the march of intellect had not equalled the march 
of impudence." 

On his return home he devoted himself to a project he had long been 
revolving in his mind, and by which he hoped to enhance the effect and enlarge 
the sphere of usefulness of his favourite medium, wood, until, as he hoped, 
it might rival copper or steel in its adaptability to the purposes of engraving 
large subjects. Papillon, a Frenchman, had suggested the idea in 1768, and 
Bewick now determined to carry it into effect. It was to prepare a series of 
woodcuts of the same design, on blocks of the same size, and merely differing 
in the arrangement of the lines on each woodcut, and then print them one 
over the other, by which means he hoped to obtain more richness of effect and 
a greater variety of tint than formerly. From the durability of woodcuts he 
thought this scheme would be especially adapted for printing ofT immense 
quantities of cheap publications to ornament cottage walls. With a prescience, 
some will think, of his approaching end, Bewick chose as his subject "Waiting 
for Death," an old horse in the last stage of decrepitude and decay, a subject 
appealing for pity to both eye and ear, as he wrote a most pathetic tale to 
accompany it. He hoped it might inculcate consideration for animals,* and 
thus accomplish a twofold object he had at heart. Alas ! one only of the 
blocks was ever finished.! ^^Ir. C. Thomson gives us a letter dated November 
1st, 1828, in which Bewick asks Mr. Pickering, the bookseller, to supply him 

* It was to have been dedicated to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 

T In 1832, some impressions of it were issued by his son ; one lies before us, and, notwith- 
standmg the unfurnished appearance, it is so softly printed on suitable paper that the effect is 
much more pleasing than some coarser impressions re-isiued only a few years a^o. 



S2 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



with some vellum* of excellent quality he had ordered from the Continent, and 
adds, "I have now nearly finished a large woodcut [12 inches by 9] and it 
would be very desirable to have a few printed on vellum," and hopes soon to 
send him something he must do him the favour to accept. That very day, 
Bewick himself took the block on which he had been engaged to be proved. 
It was a Saturday, and the end was near. On Sunday he took ill, he never 
rallied, and a few days afterwards the good old man sank gently to his rest. 
The work in this life, of that busy hand and active brain was over. His death 
took place at V}.o in the morning on November Sth, 1S28. His body was laid 
in Ovingham Churchj-ard, where his father, mother, brother, and sister were 
already gathered, and beside his wife, the most tenderly cherished of them all. 
One by one, the rolling years brought his remaining loved ones — a son and 
two daughters — to that last quiet resting place ; and, even, as their earthly 
remains are not divided, their spirits also, we doubt not, rest together in peace 
in the company of the Blessed. 




The Bewick Bi:ki.-\l Place at Ovingham. 
([■'rom an electrotype obtained from Messrs. Chatto »S^ ^Vindus ) 



* \'ellum, tiot parchment, be it observed (see chapter on Chillin<jham Bull). Evidently 
Bewick considered the experiment then tried had been successful, and wished to repeal it. 



HIS PUPILS. 



S3 



Bewick's Pupils. 



JOHX BEWICK 
Was born in 1700, and brought up in the same manner as his elder brother. 
He, however, remained longer at home (until he was seventeen), and he 
does not seem to have shown the same earl\- love for drawing ; nevertheless, 
under training, he soon developed the family talent. He did much good 

work during his comparatively short 
life; some of it attesting really fine 
artistic feeling, and his last — the designs 
for Somerville's Chase — clearly show 
to what a height his genius might have 
carried him, had he been spared to 
complete a longer life. His brother, 
Thomas, finished the cutting of these 
blocks. We mav feel sure it was a labour 
of love, for nothing can exceed the 
richness and beauty of their execution ; 
and he seems to have taken a mournful 
pleasure in interpreting his brother, 
though by almost excelling himself. 
Almost all we know of John is from 
this affectionate brother's pen, and so 
we give it in his own words from the 
Memoirs : — 

"Durincr my absence in London, Mr. 
Beilhy hr.d taken an apprentice with a premium ; 
mine. With him I was extremely happy. He 
and my friends were his friends. -Mr. Beilby 
was as well pleased with him^as I cotild^possibly be ; for besides his affiible temper, he took any 
kind of work in hand so pleasantly, and so very soon learned to execute it well, that he could 
not miss giving" satisfaction. This he continued to do as long as he was with us ; but other 
parts of his conduct, when he arrived at manhood, was not so well, and gave me great uneasiness; 
for he got acquainted with companions whom I thought badly of, and my remonstrances respect- 
ing them proved in vain. He would not, as he called it, be dictated to by me; but this I 
persisted in till it made us often quarrel, which was distressing to me, for my regard for him was 
too deeplv rooted ever to think of suffering him to tread in the paths which led to ruin, without 
endeavoui-ing to prevent it. To the latest day of his life he repented of having turned a deaf ear 
to my advice ; and as bitterly and sincerely did he acknowledge the slighted obligations he owed 
me. He rued; and that is as painful a word as any in the English language. As soon as I 
thought my brother might be able to work his way in the world, he having been, I think, about 
five years with me, I gave him his liberty, and he set off to London, where, being freed from his 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 
This is a very rare and early cut by John Bewick. 

and to make us equal, I took my brother John as 
was constantly cheerful, lively, and very active. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



former associates, his conduct was all that could be desired, and he was hiq-hly respected and 
esteemed. He was as industrious in London as he had been with us, and had plenty of work tu 
do. He was almost entirely employed 
by the publishers and booksellers in 



n II 'I II II II II n !■ 1' I II II II II '•. !■ I' II ir i r n ii n a n n ii ii n it ii i rx . 




i,:lLjnLiMiji II 11 I II II II II II n I n II II 11 11 II ., u II II II 11 11 II n » 



By John Bewick. 
(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



de^ig"ning and cutting an endless variety 
of blocks for them. He was extremely 
quick at his work, and did it at a very 
low rate.* His too close confinement, 
however, impaired his health. He re- 
visited Chcrryburn, where he did not 
remain long, till he thought himself 
quite recovered, and he then returned 
to London, where he continued a few 
years long-er, and, when the same kind 
of confinement affected his health as 
before, a similar visit to his native air 
was found necessary ; his health was 
ai;;;ain restored to him, and ag^ain he re- 
turned to London. He, however, found 
that he could not pursue the same kind 
of close confinement, on which account 
he eng^aged to teach drawing at the 
ffornsey Academy, then kept by Mr. 
Nathaniel Norton, which obliged him 
to keep a pony to ride backwards and forwards ; thus dividing his time between his work-office 
in London and the school, for some years, when his health began again to decline, and he finally 
left London early in the summer of 1795, and returned once more to the banks of the Tyne. 
Here he intended to follow the wood engraving 
for his London friends, and particularly for Wm. 
Bulmer, for whom he was engaged to execute a 
number of blocks for the Fabiieitx^^ or Tales of 
Le Grand^ and for Somerville's Chase. Many of 
the former he had, I believe, finished in London, 
and had sketched the designs on the blocks for 
the Chase ; and to those I put the finishing hand, 
after his decease, which happened on the 5th of 
December, 1795, aged 35 years. The last thing I 
could do for him was putting up a stone to his 
memory at the west end of Ovingham Church, 
where, I hope, when my 'glass is run out,' to be 
laid down beside him." 

'^ While my brother was my apprentice he 
frequently accompanied me on my weekly visits to 
Cherryburn. He was then a clever, springy youth, 
and our bounding along together was often com- 
j)ared to the scamperings of a pair of wild colt^." 

* On January 9th, 1788, Thomas writes to 
his brother in London : — " I am much pleased by 
the cuts for the Death's Dance^ and wish much to 
have the book when it is done. 1 am surprised 
you would undertake to do them for 6s. each ; you 
have been spending your time and grinding out 
your eyes to very little purpose indeed." 

f This edition by Bulmer of the Fahlieitx is a very fine one, in two volumes, octavo. A 
copy, formerly in the possession of the late Rev. Mark Pattison, Head of Lincoln College, Oxon, 
lies before the Editor. The designs of the woodcuts by John are good, but the execution is very 
hard, and inferior to Thomas's work, and not to be compared to the illustrations in Somerville's 
Chase. 




Bv John Bewick. 
(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



HIS PUPILS. 




The following are amongst his works: — The Children'' s Miscellany, 17S7 ; 
Honours of the Table, i-iM \ The Emblems of Mortality, \-,^<). The idea of 
the illustrations for this important work were taken from the Imagines Mortis. 
printed at Lyons in 1547, and in plan resembles Holbein's celebrated Dance 
of Death. Thomas Bewick, who, as we have seen by his letter, much admired 
these cuts, adopted the same notion in some of his Fables.* This was followed 

by Robinson Crnsoc (very poor) ; Proverbs 
Exemplified. 1790; Blosso>7is of Morality. 
Ritson's Robin Hood, The Beauties of Crea- 
tion, 1 790 ; and Progress of Man and Society, 
all containing a good many cuts by John ; 
and no less than seventy-four in the Looking 
Glass for the Mind zxt, by him. 

This hard work, scanty pay, and London 
air, told, as we have seen, on his health, and 
compelled him to endeavour to recruit it in 
his native air. On his return to London in 
1793, he worked for Bulmer on Robert 
Pollard's Peerage,^ and in 1794 cut thirty- 
five engravings for Newbery's Instructive 
Tales for Youth, and now, just as his powers 
were beginning to culminate, his life was 
drawing to its close. Bulmer determined to 
issue from his "Shakespeare printing office" 
specimens of book printing which should 
excel, both as regards type, paper, illustra- 
tive designs, and wood engraving, anything 
hitherto attempted, by combining all the 
talent and all the art resources of that day, 
and he called upon Thomas and John Bewick, 
with some of the pupils of the former (as we shall see presently), to help him. 
The Poems of Goldsmith and Parnell, 1705. and Somerville's Chase were the 
result of this great effort ; and of Somerville's Chase Hugo says : — " This work 




(Lent b}' Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

This fine block has been cut down. It 
is inserted here as a good specimen 
of the strongs contrasts of black in 
close ju.Ktaposition to white, which 
was a peculiarity much aimed at by 
John Bewick.;]; A good judge (Mr. 
M. Mackey) is inclined, however, to 
attribute this cut to Charlton Xesbit. 



* See page 20 in this volume, 

t See the Notes on the " Bewick Sale " Wood Blocks in this volume. No. 209. 

J Speaking of John Bewick, the Treatise on Wood Engravmg, after giving (at page Cog) a 
facsimile of one of his cuts in the Blossoms of Moralilv, published about 1796, says: — ''It 
exemplifies his manner of contrasting positive black with pure white;" and, on the preceding 
page, " His best cuts may be readily distinguished from his brother's by the greater contrast of 
black and white in the cuts engraved by John, and by the dry and withered appearance of the 
foliage of the trees." 



.% 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 






contains the best specimens of John Bewick's abilities as a designer ; " and a 
writer in the Gentleman's Magazine, speaking of the death of John Bewick, 
says : — " The works of this young artist 
will be held in estimation ; and the en- 
gravings to Somerville's Chase will be a 
monument of fame of more celebrity than 
marble can bestow." These designs were 
his last, and when he laid them down 
his work on earth was over, and his sor- 
rowing friends laid him soon after in the 
quiet churchyard at Ovingham, where 
his remains sleep beside those of his 
brother. 

Before finally leaving the subject of 
John Bewick we may correct here, on 
iMiss Bewick's authority, a small error into 
which Mr. Hugo seems to have fallen. 
At page 291, Bcicick Collector's Supple- 
ment, he catalogues the following : — 




" (539O -I- The Oracles: Containing^ Some 
Particulars of the History of Billy and Kilty 
Wilson [etc.] London : Printed for E. Nevvbery, 
at the Corner of St. Paul's Church-yard, by E. 
Rider, No. 36, Little Britain. [Price Si.xpence.] 
[.N'.d.] i8mo., pp. 124. With thirteen cuts, to which I give the benefit 



John Bewick's Book-pl.^tk. 

B}' himself. (From the Bewick Sale, 223.) 
See the Bewick Collector, page J08. .^n 
impression from this block wa'^ gi\'en as a 
treasure by Miss Bewick to Mr. Hugo. 



:if a doubt. They are 





(Lent by the Rev. W. J. Townsend.) Formerly in the possession of J. W. Barnes, Esq., 
executor to the Misses Bewick. While in his collection they were lent to illustrate the "Notes 
and Catalogue " of the Bewick Collection at the Fine .Arts Gallery in London, in iSSi, edited by 
.Mr. !■". G. Ste])hens, where they appeared at page 4, and were attributed to John Bewick ; but 
the Editor is informed by Mr. D. Croal Thomson, who also had something to do with compiling 
that work, that these blocks have since been ascribed to James Lee,* a wood engraver, who died in 
1804, and was largely employed, so Redgrave informs us, in illustrating books for children. Mr. 
.Matthew Mackey, however, an excellent judge, considers they are not at all like Lee's work, and 
are of the Bewick school, most probably by John Bewick. 



* .\ full account of these Lees, father and son, may be found at page 627 of the Treatise on 
WiWtt £)igraving. 



fns PUPILS. 



87 



exactly similar in style to those of No. (4108), of which a specimen is given at p. 31, and are, 
I believe, the work of Lee, to whom, without doubt, the majority of the cuts in Newbery's pub- 
lications, ordinarily attributed to John Bewick, are to be referred." 

" Very fine copy, in its original Dutch boards. It belonged to ' ilary Burchell, Feby. 15th, 
1S03.'" 

In the Editor's copy of this work — formerly Miss Bewick's — she remarks, 

in an autograph side-note, on the above :— 

".\ C0P3- of this Book was sent to R. E. Bewick by his uncle, John Bewick, who engraved 
the cuts." "J.B." 

We think this MS. note is worth recording, as great confusion seems to have 
taken place between the work of Lee, the engraver, and that of John Bewick. 
Mr. Hugo made the extraordinary statement that John Bewick is supposed to 
have signed some of his blocks " Lee" ! and several critics now ascribe to Lee 
the set of the woodcuts (specimens of which are inserted here) which were 
attributed to John Bewick in Mr. Stephens's "Notes" on the Bewick Loan 
Exhibition, 1881. 

ROBERT ELLIOT BEWICK, 
Thomas Bewick's only son and second child, was born in April, 1788, and 
was brought up in his father's workshop as an engraver. He undoubtedly 
executed much careful work for the firm ; but he lacked originality or the 
decision of purpose to develop his talents in the way his father fondly hoped, 

and seems always to have 
laboured under the disad- 
vantage of bad health. 
Anxiety on this score, and 
the most tender affec- 
tion, breathe through the 
father's touching letter to 
his wife from Wycliffe, in 
1 791. He writes : — "My 
dear little boy is hardly 
ever out of my mind. I 
hope the sea will mend 
him. If upon my return 
I find him recovered I 
think I shall be frantic 
with joy."* So wrote the 
young father ; and, later in life, to Richard Wingate, he says : — " 7th May, 
1821 My son had another bad bout since I saw you ; he 




(From the Bewick Sale, 224.) 
This exquisite little bird, signed R. E. B. (Robert F.lli'.t 
Bewick), is an original design which here makes its fir<t 
appearance in public. 



Letter publirhed in the Transactions of the Natural History Society of Xorthumberlatid. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



was attacked with it on Friday after dinner, and it kept him in great misery 
till about midnight on Saturday or towards Sunday morning. It has left him 
very faint and weak."* And in his old age, Thomas Bewick, speaking in his 
Memoirs of his son, says : — " And now, when the time is fast approaching for 
my winding up all my labours, I may be allowed to name my own son and 
partner, whose time has been taken up with attending to all the branches of 
our business, and who, I trust, will not let wood engraving go down, and though 
he has not shown any partiality towards it, yet the talent is there, and I hope 
he will call it forth." 

This only boy, so tenderly loved, grew up to be a most dutiful, affectionate 
son, his father's right hand in the business (which he eventually carried on 
after his death) ; but he never became a great artist, nor rivalled his father, 
nor equalled his uncle in design and 
engraving. Perhaps some constitu- 
tional weakness induced a timidity 
paralyzingtoany original effort. The 
words, "I am afear'd," are very sig- 
nificant. He used them in speaking 
of his intention (never carried out) 
of completing and publishing the 
book on fishes which his father had 
]irojected as the complement of the 
Quadrupeds and the H/rds, and on 
which he himself had spent much 
time and labour. Miss Bewick tells 
us, in the Appendix to the Memoirs, 
that he left at his death "About fifty (t'™™ ^'^^ ^tv<\,V Sale, ::5.) 

highly finished and accurately coloured drawings of fishes from nature, together 
with a portion of the descriptive matter relating to the work." These very beau- 
tiful drawings may now be seen at the British Museum, as they formed part of 
the gift of his sister. His father, in his old age, after he retired from taking an 
active part in the business, had employed himself at home in engraving many 
of them, and his touch may be recognized in "The Basse" and some others of 
those given in the Appendix to the Memoirs. The son's fine and delicate, but 
much less powerful and original, touch may be seen in " The Maigre " (signed 
by him), the last of that series. The Editor is glad to be able to give a signed 
specimen of his wood engraving here from the Bewick Sale, where the same 
characteristics are displayed. 




* Letter in the possession of .^dmir-il Mitfurd. 



HIS PUPILS. 



89 



Making the water-colour drawings from nature seems indeed to have been 
more to his taste than engraving them. Mr. Dobson says: — ''He copied 
Nature with great fidelity, and was exceedingly minute and patient ; but as an 
engraver he never developed the latent talent which his father believed him to 
possess." Neither does Mr. Thomson rank him in that department very 
high, although he has taken great pains to discriminate and catalogue the blocks 
and plates he executed, which we need not here recapitulate. The Tyne at 
Bywell, an unpublished book-plate, and one of the finest copperplates he ever 
engraved, we are fortunate enough to be able to give amongst the ''Bewick 
Sale " plates in this volume (No. XIX). He seems to have been very fond 
of music, and visitors to his father's house have frequently recorded his per- 
formances on the Northumbrian small pipes. ^ portrait of him with his pipes 
mav be seen in the Newcastle Museum. He lived unmarried with his sisters 
in Gateshead until his death in July, 1849, and was buried beside his father and 
uncle in Ovingham Churchyard. 

ROBERT JOHNSON. 
Foremost amongst Bewick's pupils should stand the name of Robert 
Johnson. It has been argued by some people that none of these pupils were of 
any genius because they did not distinguish themselves especially by very 
great original works after Bewick's time. Perhaps the early death of many of 
them mav account for this, their career having been cut short prematurely and 
in the lifetime of their master. Perhaps others never achieved distinction 
because they had not his steadiness of character, fixity of purpose, and sound- 
ness of constitution — all qualities which go to ensure success in a man of genius, 
and without which the highest talent comes not to full fruition, but is apt to 
drop, like immature fruit, withered before its time. Perhaps, because Luke 
Clennell (''the genius of the group," Mr. Dobson calls him), and Harvey 
(Bewick's favourite pupil), abandoned wood engraving entirely, for the more 
remunerative work of designing for others. It may, however, be fairly said of 
Robert Johnson that he was a young man of rare talent and infinite promise ; 
but, he died alas ! when only twenty-six, and, like Luke Clennell, his intellect 
became clouded before the end. He also resembled Luke Clennell in that the 
bent of his mind was in the direction of design and colouring rather than 
engraving ; indeed, he is said never to have cut a wood block at all. He was 
born at Shotley, in the County of Durham, in 1770, and apprenticed in 1788 
to Beilby and Bewick to learn copperplate engraving. Jackson says : — 

*' He does not appear to have been desirous to excel as an engraver. His great delight con- 
sisted in sketching from nature and in painting in water-colours, and in this branch of art, while 
yet an apprentice, he displayed talents of a very high order." 



90 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



The Treatise on Wood Engraving tells us : — ■ 

"Johnson's water-colour drawings for most of the cuts in Bewick's Fables are extremely 
beautiful. They are the soul of the cuts, and as a set are perhaps the finest small drawings of 
the kind that were ever made. Their finish and accuracy of drawing are admirable — they look 
like miniature ' Paul Potters.' It is known to only a few persons that they were drawn by 
Johnson during his apprenticeshif). Most of them were copied on the block by \\'illiam Harvey, 
and the rest chiefly by Bewick himself." 

Jackson goes on to say the Earl of Bute called one day at Beilby and 
Bewick's shop, and was so pleased with a portfolio of Johnson's drawings, made 
during his leisure hours, that he took forty pounds worth. This, unfortunately, 
led to a dispute ending in a lawsuit, the masters claiming the money on the 
score of their apprentice's work being theirs, because they taught him the art, 
and the making of such drawings was part of his business, Johnson's friends, 
contending that it was not so, and they won the case ; as Jackson says : — 

" It was elicited, on the e.xamination of one of their own apprentices, Charlton Nesbit, that 
neither he, nor any other of his fellow apprentices was taught the art of drawing in water-colours 
by their masters, and that it formed no part of their necessary instruction as engravers." 

Nevertheless, we think Johnson cannot have been entirely self-taught ; at 
any rate, he must have gained many hints from the privilege of seeing the 
exquisite water-colour studies which we now know* Thomas Bewick was in 
the habit of making for his birds and vignettes. Doubtless, one or two episodes 
like this caused the asperity, almost amounting to bitterness, rather surprising 
in so kindly and right-minded a man, with which Bewick in his Memoirs 
alludes to ingratitude. Doubtless, he was a little jealous of his art, and, under 
the influence of Beilby, showed himself perhaps a little " ower careful of the 
siller." From himself we learn he thought Beilby rather "near" when they 
came to the business of closing the partnership. Perhaps, also, many of his 
pupils looked out for their own interest after lea\-ing him, more than was con- 
sistent with fairness to their master. A flagrant instance of this was given by 
Anderson, to which we shall allude hereafter. Robert Johnson gave up in 
a great measure copperplate engraving as soon as he was his own master, and 
applied himself to his favourite pursuit of drawing. The Treatise on Wood 
Engraving tells us : — 

"In I7g6, he was engaged by Messrs. Morison, booksellers and publishers, of Perth, to 
draw from the original paintings the portraits intended to be engraved in The Scottish Gallery, a 
work edited by Pinkerton, and published about 1799. When at Taymouth Castle, the seat of the 
Earl of Breadalbane, copying some portraits painted by Jameson, the Scottish Vandyke, he 
caught a severe cold, which, being neglected, increased to a fever. In the violence of the disorder he 
became delirious, and, from the ignorance of those who attended him, the unfortunate young artist, 
far from home, and v\itlK>ut a friend to console him, was bound and treated like a madman. A 
physician having been called in, by his order, blisters were applied, and a different course of 
treatment adopted. Johnson recovered his senses, but it was only for a brief period ; being of .1 
delicate constitution, he sank under the disorder. He died at Kenmore on the :;9th October, 
1796, in the twentj'-sixth year of his age." 
* 

* b'rom the exhibition of them permitted in London, in iSSo, by the .Misses Bewick, and their 
present to the British Museum. 



"The Departure,'' in Goldsmith's Deserted Village, and "The Hermit at 
his Morning Devotions," in the Hermit of Warkvort/i, were designed by him, 
and engraved by Thomas Be\vicl<. Mr. Thomson says : — 

" Bewick's mother had been nursed during her last ilhiess hy Johnson's mother, and it was 

at the invalid's request that the youth was taken for an ajiprcntice As a 

designer and water-colour painter his work ^^■as of the verv highest quality. . . . Some 
of his larger works are of the most c-xquisite kind. One in the possession of Mr. Crawhall. New- 
castle, is a perfect gem, and equal in every respect to Turner or Girtin. This drawing is, indeed, 
almost too valuable for a private collection ; connoisseurs will be greatly and agreeabi)' surprised 
to see its marvellous beauty." 

The Editor having seen it, may add that, high as is this praise, it is not 
exaggerated, and that we undoubtedly lost by poor Johnson's early death, a 
water-colour painter of the first rank. Could not the Fine Art Society induce 
the Marquis of Bute, the Marquis of Breadalbane, the owner of the Pinkerton 
drawings, and the owner of those likened to " Paul Potters,'' together with Mr. 
Crawhall, to unite in perinitting their Johnson treasures to be exhibited in 
one group, and so give some connected idea of this young artist's genius to 
a world that has hardly ever heard of him? 

"John Johnson, a cousin of Robert, was also an apprentice of Beilby and Bewick. He was 
a wood engraver, and executed a few of the tailpieces in the History cf British Birds. Like 
Robert, he possessed a taste for drawing ; and the cut of the hermit at his morning devotion, 
engraved by T. BevAick, in Poems by Goldsmith and Parnell, was designed by him. He died at 
Newcastle, about 1797, shortly after fhe expiration of his apprenticeship." — Treatise on WotM^ 
Engrai'ing. 

CHARLTON NESBIT. 
Charlton Nesbit, in Air. Dobson's opinion the most distinguished as an 
engraver, pure and simple, of the elder pupils, was born at Swalwell, in the 
County of Durham, in 1775. This village lies on the banks of the Tyne, 
where his father was a keelman. He was apprenticed, in 1780, to Beilby and 
Bewick, and he was soon allowed to do work for the firm. He drew and 
engraved the bird's nest above the Preface to Vol. I. of the Birds* and engraved 
most of the vignettes and tailpieces to the Poems of Goldsmith and Parnell 
during his apprenticeship. In 1797-9, he received the silver palette of the 
Society of Arts for an impression from a block (the largest that had then ever 
been attempted) of St. Nicholas' Church, after a water-colour drawing by 
Robert Johnson. It measured 15 inches by 12. Jackson tells us it was made 
"on twelve different pieces of bo.xwood firmly clamped together and mounted 
on a piece of cast iron to prevent their warping." This must have been an 
ambitious experiment for so young a man. In 1 799, he went to London, where 
he dated from Fetter Lane, and lived there until 18 15. He engraved a great 
deal during this time, after the designs of Thurston, for Scholey's History of 



* See Notes on the "Bewick Sale" wood blocks in this \'olume, 
199), the cutting of which is there attributed to Charlton Nesbit. 



' The Dead Horse " (No. 



9- 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




England and R. Ackermans & Co.'s Religious Emblems, published in 1808. 
On the latter he was employed in conjunction with Clennell, Branston, and 
Hole. Jackson says they were unquestionably the best cuts of theii" kind 
which up to that time had appeared in England. He goes on to say : — 

"Clennell's are tlie nio&t artist- 
like in their e.xecution and effect, while 
Nesbit's are ensjraved with greater care. 
Branston, except in one cut, ' Rescued 
from the Floods,' does not appear to 
such advantage in this work as his 
Northern rivals. There is only one cut, 
'Seed Sown,' engraved by Hole. The 
following may be mentioned as the best 
of Nesbit's cuts in this work : ' The 
World Weighed,' 'The Daughters of 
Jerusalem,' 'Sinners Hiding in the 
Gra^■e,' and 'Woinided in the Mental 
Eye.' The best of Clennell's are : 'Call 
to \'igilance,' 'The World made Cap- 
tive,' and ' Fainting for the Li\'ing 
Waters.' These are perhaps the three 
best cuts of their kind that Clennell 
ever engraved." — Trtuit:sf on Wocti Eu- 
gyaving. 

He seems early to have 

realized sufficient to make him 

independent. He returned to 

the North in 1.S15, where he retired to Swahvell, not attempting to establish 

himself as an engraver in Newcastle, as Nicholson had done, although he 

occasionally — very occasionally — continued to e.xecute commissions for the 

London publishers. While living in the country (1818) he engraved a large 

cut of " Rinaldo and Armida," for Savage's Hints on Decorative Printing. 

This, and another by Branston (for which Jackson is careful to tell us they 

Were never paiil), were expressly given to show the perfection to which wood 

engraving had then been brought. 

"The foliage, the trees, and the drapery in Nesbit's cuts are admirably engraved; but the 
lines in the bodies of tlie figures are too much broken and 'chopped up.' This, howe^^er, was not 
the fault of the engraver, but of the designer, Mr. J. Tliurston. The lines, which now have a 
dotted appearance, were originally continuous and distinct; but Mr. Thurston objecting to them 
as being too dark, Nesl>it went over his work again, and with immense labour reduced the strength 
of his lines, and gave them their present dotted appearance. As a specimen of the engraver's 
abilities, the first proof submitted to the designer was superior to the last." — Treatise on Wood 
Engraving. 

In 1830, Nesbit returned to London, and executed some fine cuts for 
N'orthccjte's Fables (second series), of which, "The Self-important," ''Hare 
and Biamble," " Tlie Cock, the Dog, and the Fox," and "The Peach and the 
Potato," are the best. As a wood engraver only, he is deemed the best of 



(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

This cut is signed by C. Nesbit, and appeared in 
Bloomfield's Rural Tales and Sonrs, iSo;. 



HIS PUPILS. 



93 







'c^:- 



(Lent by Robt. Smith, Esq., M.D.) 
By Luke Clennell. Yrom Scotfis/: 



Bewick's pupils, and the excellence of his work will always command for him 
one of the highest places in that branch of art. He died at Queen's Elm, 
Brompton, in 1S38. 

LUKE CLENNELL. 
Mr. Austin Dobson has noted for us that this is a truly Northumbrian 
name, and that besides Esquires of that ilk (surviving, we may add, to 
this day, in the person of Mr. Fenwick-Clennell, of Harbottle Castle, owner of 

the manor of Clennell, hard by), there was a high 
sheriff of the county who bore the name of Luke 
Clennell, in 1727. Derived, doubtless, from the 
same stock, though when or how has not been 
recorded, our artist was born at L^lgham, in North- 
umberland, in 1 78 1. The son of a farmer, he was 
intended by his father to be a grocer ; but, like 
the 3-outhful Shakespeare, he got into some trouble 
by applying a door to a purpose for which it 
had not been originally intended, viz., to receive 
Mhisij-els, page 155, published a Caricatured portrait of a neighbour. Li his case 
by Davison, of Alnwick. ^^g Q^g^^ jj^ Shakespeare's the inner, lineaments 

were depicted ! Each used the weapon that came readiest to his hand, and, 
whether with pencil or pen, each presaged, by his satirical use of it, the instru- 
ment by which he would rise to 
future fame ! The comparison 
may be carried still further, for 
the early misuse of great talents 
led in both cases to an enforced 
departure from the country to 
the town, and thus, perhaps, in 
both, brought out a genius that 
might otherwise have lain dor- 
mant and undeveloped. His 
uncle, Thomas Clennell, of Mor- 
peth, noted this propensity for 
drawing, and, like a wise man, 
apprenticed him, in 1797, to 
Bewick for seven years. He 




(Lent by Robert Smith, E?q., ^LD.) 

Attributed to Clennell. Select Scottish Songs, by Burns. 
1810. 



soon mastered the art in so satisfactory a manner that he was entrusted to 
cut the blocks for many of those tailpieces in the second volume of the Birds. 
which were designed by Robert Johnson. In drawing and sketching from nature 



94 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



he also began to excel, and imitated his master by seeking fresh "subjects" 
during many an expedition on foot into the country. He drank deeply from the 
inspiration of that master, and caught much of his spirit ; and we cannot help 
thinking, however little water-colour painting may have formed part of the 
instruction imparted to the apprentices, or thought necessary in their education 
as engravers, some hints must have been given by Bewick to the most apt of 
his pupils. They developed much talent in this direction, and must have 
watched with delight their master's procedure in this department of his art. 

It should ever be borne in mind that the Bewicks, and in this the pupils of 
their "school" followed them, were artists as well as engravers, inventing their 
own designs, making studies from Nature to be transferred by themselves to 
the block, and that they were consequently entitled to rank as a class higher 
in the artistic world than the more mechanical wood engravers of the present 
day, who, however they may excel in technical skill, are not generally speaking, 
in the strict sense of the word, artists. Others now originate, and their 
drawings being reduced by photography to the size desired on the wood, they 
are then " cut in " only, by the wood engraver. 

Clennell, after the termination of his apprenticeship, continued to work 
for Bewick, and many of the illustrations for The Hive of Ancient and Modern 
Literature, and Wallis and Scholey's History of England, issued about this 
time from the Bewick workshop, were both designed and engraved by him. 
The latter work led to his leaving Newcastle and settling in London, in the 
year 1804. For, thinking he was not sufficiently well paid by Bewick, and 
that his master received too large a proportion of the price,* he put himself in 
communication with the publisher, Mr. R. Scholey, who sent for him to 
London to complete the cuts for his firm direct. Bewick naturally felt 
aggrieved at a work actually in progress in his shop being taken out of his 
hands. Clennell would have acted more honourably had he waited until the 
History of England was completed before undertaking work for Scholey. \\\ 
1806, he received the gold palette of the Society of Arts for an engraving on 
wood of a battle; and fame and fortune being rapidly attained, he soon after 
married the eldest daughter of Charles Warren, the copperplate engraver, who 
was, Mr. Dobson tells us, "a worthy rival of Raimbach, Finden, and the little 
knot of talented men who, at the beginning of the present century, emulated 
each other in producing the delicate book embellishments issued by Sharpe, 
De Rovery, and others." Clennell's introduction to this society had no 
doubt an important influence over his future career. In 1807, Davison, of 
Alnwick, published The Minstrel, by James Beattie, with sixteen designs by 

* Jackson tells us ;^5 each was paid for them, out of which Clennell received £l. 



HIS PUPILS. 




Thurston, engraved on the wood by ClennelL* In 1809, he received the 
gold medal of the Society of Arts for a large block he cut as the diploma 
of the Highland Society. Benjamin West made the design ; Thurston drew 
the central group on the wood, for which he received from Clennell ^^"15 ; 
and the latter drew the rest of the figures himself on the wood, and cut in 
the block; but, alas! after two months' work upon it, the block (made of 
boxwood veneered on beech) split, and all had to be done over again. How- 
ever, at last, a second block was finished, and for it Clennell received ;^"ioo. 
In 1810-12, he engraved, from the pen and ink drawings of T. Stothard, 
R.A., illustrations for Rogers' Poems. Jackson says, " They are executed with 
the feeling of an artist ; " and Mr. Austin Dobson says, " Many of the com- 
positions have all the lucid charm of antique gems, and, indeed, may actually 
have been copies of them, since the 'Marriage of Cupid and Psyche,' page 140, 
is plainly intended for the famous sardonyx in the Marlborough collection." 
But Mr. Dobson does not allude to the designs being by Stothard. The credit 
of the "composition," we think, is due on this occasion to that devotee of the 
antique, ably seconded, no doubt, by Clennell. As an engraver, this was 
almost Clennell's last work. We have seen how capable he had long shown 
himself as a water-colourist and designer, and from this time he seems to have 
devoted himself entirely to these branches of the art. He made many of the 
drawings for Sir Walter Scott's Border Antiquities, and his pictures began to 
attract the attention of the directors of the British Institution. He also 
exhibited in the Society of Painters in Water-colours. In 18 14, the Earl of 
Bridgewater employed him to paint a large picture of " The Allied Sovereigns 
at the Guildhall Banquet." He had great difficulty in getting sketches of 
those distinguished personages. In these days of photography, it can hardly 
be believed how much time and anxiety were experienced in getting such 
indispensable materials, which were necessary, before he could begin his 
picture. Jackson says it was thought the anxiety had been too much for 
him. He became insane before the picture was finished, and it had to be 
completed by another hand. The same terrible malady soon after attacked 
his wife also, and his unfortunate children were left unprovided for. This 
led to the publication by subscription of an engraving of one of his pictures, 
"The Decisive Charge of the Life Guards at Waterloo," and the sum raised, 
after paying the engraver, was invested for their benefit. The copy sub- 
scribed for, by the Editor's grandfather, now lies before us, and shows it to 

* Mr. Chas. Hindle}', speaking of this book, says : — " It is enriched by the masterly engrav- 
ings of Clennell, and nothing can be finer than some of the productions of this far-famed artist," 
and quotes Hugo's opinion, that it was " One of the most ambitious productions of the Alnwick 
press." See the Life and Times 0/ James CatnacJi, page 12. 



Ob 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



have been a spirited and ambitious pieture. Thus sadly closed his public 
career as an artist. After a few years spent in a lunatic asylum he partially 
recovered, and was permitted to return to the custody of a relation near 

Newcastle. There he lived in a state of ^ 

harmless insanity, making little drawings, 
woodcuts, and poetry, all showing, alas ! 
onlv too plainly, the wreck of his former 
genius. He used occasionally to call on 
his old master, and once asked for a block 
to engrave. To humour him, Bewick gave 
him a piece of wood, and left him to 
choose his subject ; but when he returned 
with it finished (convinced himself it was 
one of his most successful productions) a 
glance showed it was like the attempt of 
a boy when first beginning to engrave. 
About 1831, he had again to be placed in an asylum. Until the last he con- 
tinued to amuse himself with drawing and making verses. He died in 




CiAMULI.VG IN A DEBTOR'S PRISON. 

(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

Attributed to W. Harvey. 



Februarj', 1S40, and 

many Newcastle artists 

attended his funeral. A 

tablet was erected to his 

memory in St. Andrew's 

Church, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. 

Jackson, in his His- 

iiii'v :ij Wood Eiigravitig, 

says :— 

" ^^ost of Clcnnell's ruts 
are distinguished by their free 
and artist-like exe<ution, and 
\yy their excellent effect ; but, 
thuuu;h ;j^e nera I ly spirited, they 
are sometimes rather coarstly 
engraved. Fie was accustomed 
to improve Thurston's designs 
by occasionally heightening 
the effect. To such alterations 
Thurston at fir-^t objected ; 
but, perceiving tliat the cuts 
when engravLti were thus very 
much improved, he alterwards 




llilSiillt'liliifilliililllltoi;^^ 



.„.mii»lllllllil!l>l'l4|>'!lll!!lllllliin 

(Lent by Robert Smilli, Esq., M.D.) 

This and the two following blocks are Fables, we think, cut by 
Ilarvcy, from designs by Bewick, and illustrative of his style 
while siill strongly under Bewick's influence. They are very 
beautiful, and, if we are not right in our conjecture, they may 
easily have been cut by Bewick himself in his later manner. 
These blocks were bought by the Rev. Thos. Hugo from .Miss 
Bewick, through Mr. R. Robiiison, bookseller, of Newcastle. 



allowed Clennell to increase the lights and deepen the shadows according to his own judgment. 
.An adnurable specimen of Clennell's engraving is to be found in an octavo edition of Falconer's 
SAi/iwieii, printed for Cadell and Davies, i8o8. It occurs as a vignette to the second canto, at 



HIS PUPILS. 



page 43, and the subject is a ship running before the wind in a gale. The motion of the waves, 
and tlie gloomy appearance of the sl<y, are represented with admirable truth and feeling. The 
dark shadow on the waters to the right gives wonderful effect to the white crest of the waves in 
front, and the whole appearance of the cut is indicative of a gloom}' and tempestuous day, and of 

an increasing storm. Perhaps no 

ituin iiiiiii I Willi iiiin yiiiiiiii 



nfliy|{||lllllllliiiiiiiiiiiiiniii;iiii|in 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



engraving of the same kind, either 
on copper or wood, conveys the 
idea of a storm at sea with greater 
fidelity. The drawing was made 
on the block by Thurston ; but 
the spirit and effect, the lights 
and shadows, apparent seething 
of the waves, and the troubled 
appearance of the sky, were in- 
troduced by Clennell. All the 
other cuts in this edition of the 
Shipwreck are of his engraving." 

Mr. Dobson says : — 

" His distinguishing quali- 
ties are breadth, spirit, and 
rapidity of handling, rather than 
finish or minuteness ; and the 
former characteristics are usually 
held to be superior to the latter. 
His unfortunate story invests 
them with an additional interest." 



WILLIAM HARVEY, 
Who rose to very great distinction as an artist, was born at Newcastle-upon- 
T\'ne in 1796, and was the son of the keeper of the Baths in that town. 

Having shown a great 
fondness for drawing, he 
was apprenticed, in 1810, 
to Bewick, and succeeded 
Isaac Nicliolson (who had 
now estabHshed himself in 
Newcastle on his own ac- 
count) in the workshop. 
Jackson tells us that W. 
W. Temple and John 
Armstrong were his fellow 
apprentices. He and Tem- 
ple were employed on the 
Fables, which appeared in 
1818, engraving many of 
Robert Johnson's designs. Bewick says they " were eager to do their utmost 
to forward me in the engraving business and in my struggles to get the book 
ushered into the world." In many of the Fables his unmistakable style of 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



ciS 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



design and execution can be clearly traced. He became a great favourite with 
his master, who presented him, in 1815, with the History of British Birds, 
accompanied by the following very characteristic letter, and it is pleasant to 
think their cordiality was never interrupted : — 

"Gateshead, \st Jauunrv, 1S15. 
Deak William, — I sent j'ou last night the History of British Birds, which I beg your 
acceptance of as a New Year's gift, and also as a token of my respect. Don't trouble yourself 
about thanking me for them ; but, instead of doing so, let those books put you in mind of the 
duties )'ou have to perform through lite. Look at them (as long as they last) on every New 
^'ear's Day, and at the same time resolve, with the help of the All-wise but unknowable God, tt) 
conduct yourself on every occasion as becomes a good man. Be a good son, a good brother, and 
(when the time comes) a good husband, a good father, and a good member of society. Peace of 
mind wilt then follow you like a shadow ; and, when your mind grows rich in integrity, you will 
fear the frowns of no man, and only smile at the plots and conspiracies which it is probable will 
be laid against j-ou by envy, hatred, and malice. THOMAS BEWICK. 

To William Harvey, Jun., Westgate." 

In 1817, Harvey 
went to London, and 
studied drawing system- 
atically under R. B. 
Haydon, and anatomy 
under Sir Chas. Bell. 
His fellow pupils at 
this time were Eastlake, 
Lance, and Landseer. In 
the Treatise on Wood En- 
graving we are told : — 

"While impro\'ing him- 
self under Mr. Ilaydon, he 
drew and engraved from a 
picture by that eminent artist 
his large cut of the ' Death of 
Dentatus,' which was pub- 
lished in 182 1. This cut is 
about fifteen inches high by 
about eleven inches and one- 
quarter wide. It was engraved 
on a block consisting of seven 
different pieces, the joinings 
of which are apparent in im- 
pressions that have not been 
subsequently touched with 
Indian ink. As a large sub- 
ject this is unquestional^ly one 
of the most elaborately en- 
graved woodcuts that has ever 
appeared. It scarcely, however, can be considered a successful specimen of the art ; for, though the 
execution in many parts be superior to anything of the kind, either of earlier or more recent 
times, the cut, as a whole, is rather an attempt to rival copperplate engraving than a perfeu 
specimen of engraving on wood, displaying tlie peculiar advantages and excellencies of the art 
within its own legitimate bounds. More has been attempted than can be efficiently represented 




Felis 0. 



Thii 



The Jaguar. 

-Lin. Le Jaguar. — Buff. Hab., South America. 

(From the Bewick Sale, 226.) 

beautiful woodcut was designed by Harvey for the Tower 
Menagerie, which appeared in 182S. It is more gr.aceful and 
expressive in the attitude, and aims at more pictorial and life- 
like effect than the jaguar, or, indeed, any of the foreign 
animals in the History of Quadrupeds. Probably it was 
studied from Nature, whereas many of the latter were drawn 
from stuffed specimens. It was amongst the foxes and dogs 
and small English animals he knew so well that Thomas 
Bewick was thoroughly at home. 



HIS PUPILS. 



9y 



by means of wood engraving. The figure of Dentatus is indeed one of the finest specimens of 
the art that has ever been executed, and the other figures in the foreground display no less 
talent; but the rocks are of too uniform a tone, and some of the more distant figures appear 
to sticl< to each other. These defects, however, result from the very nature of the art, not from 
inability in the engraver, for all that wood engraving admits of he has effected." 

During the year i8iS, Bewick addressed another characteristic letter* to 

him as follows : — 

"Newcastle iS Aiigt., iSiS. 
Dr. William, 

You may be assured it is only through necessity that I am obliged to trouble you so 
soon again with another letter, and did you know the anxiety we are in, it would plead my 
apology with ycu for so doing. Delay is terrible to us at this time, when we are so teased by our 
tired out subscribers for the appearance of the long dela3'ed Book. The preface & Introduction 
are done & the Table of contents are at press, in which the two Fables you have promised us to 
do are named, with the page in which they must appear Si. next week the last J sheet will be put 
to press if the arrival of 3'our 2 cuts enable us to do so. If not the press must again be at a stand. 
We trust you will relieve us from our disagreeable suspense by sending the cuts in time In 
your letters, you have taken no notice how you are in health, ily lasses told me they thou't you 
looked very poorly and feared London was not agreeing with you. I fear you are m'erdoing the 
matter, ii have undertaken to do more than you are able (without severe confinement) to get 
through. Look at poor L. Clennel & never forget the Fable of ' Esop at play.' The Bow must 
not always be bent & you may find this when it is too late. Your Bror. Charles told me last 
week that you were very busy making drawings. I suppose the purpose they are for may be a 
secret, as you have never named to me lately what j'OU were doing. But be this as it may, I 
cannot help feeling interested in )'our welfare & success in whatever vou may be doing. 

I am. Dr. \Viriiam, &c. 

Thomas Bewick." 




(From the Bewick Sale, 227.) By Harvey. 



Harvey designed the 
whole, and engraved 
some, of the beautiful 
vignettes and tailpieces 
in Dr. Henderson's His- 
tory of Wines, and soon 
after (about 1824) he 
entirely gave up engrav- 
ing, and devoted himself 
to designing woodcuts, 
and he became not only 
the foremost, but almost 
the only artist of the 
day of any note in that 
department. Mr.Dobson 
says : — "It seems certain 



* This letter is in the possession of Mr. .1. C. Brooks, of Newcastle, and was laid by Mr. 
W. N. Stiangeways before the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, and has been printed in their 
Procteduigs. Mr. Strangeways says : — " It is more than probable that the secret that Bewick 
supposed Harvey had at this time was work at the great woodcut of the Death of Dentatus, which 
Austin Dobson describes as ' that ambitious attempt to unite colour, expression, handling, light, 
shadow, and heroic form.' " 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



that, about 1830-40, Harvey was the sole person to whom engravers could 
apply for an original design with security ; " and, in the Art Union for 1830, 
it is said, "The history of wood engraving for some years past is almost a 
record of the works of his pencil." He, in fact, not only succeeded to, but far 
excelled, the position held by Thurston towards the preceding generation of 
wood engravers. 

The designs for the woodcuts in the first and second series of Northcote's 
Fables (1828, 1833), in the Tower JMenagerie (1822), and in the Gardens and 
Menagerie of the Zoological Society (1831), were all drawn by him. He also 
designed for engraving on copper the illustrations to an edition of Miss 
Edgeworth's works (1832), Southey's edition of Cowper's works (1830), and an 
edition of Dr. Lingard's 
History of England. Be- 
sides many minor works, 
such as 2he Children in 
the Wood (1S31), Blind 
Beggar ofBcthnal Green 
(1S32), Story without an 
End, Pictorial Prayer 
Book, Bible, and Shake- 
speare, for Chas. Knight, 
he drew the illustrations 
for the famous three 
volumes of Lane's edition 
of the Thousand and One 
Alights, in itself a monu- 
ment of his industry, and 
a Avork that may be re- 
garded as a masterpiece 
of inventive genius. The 
fertility of his illustrative 
invention was indeed ex- 
traordinary, and has been 
compared to that of Dore. Jackson assures us he was not only a distinguished 
artist, but a kind son, an affectionate husband, a loving father, and in every 
relation of life a most amiable man. Thus he fulfilled the earnest wishes of 
his master, and, having profiled by his advice, lived an honourable life, and 
reached the allotted age of three score years and ten. He survived until 
1866, and when he died, the last, as well as one of the four greatest, of Bewick's 
pupils passed away. 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

This block was bought by the Rev. Thos. Hugo from Miss 
Bewick, through Mr. Robt. Robinson, bookseller, of New- 
castle. It is clearly designed, as well as cut, by Harvey, 
and is very illustrative of his own style, afterwards fully 
developed in his designs for Lane's edition of the Tttmsatut 
and One Niglits. By carefuUv comparing this block with 
the woodcuts in Bewick's yEsop's Fahles, students may 
discover which illustrations in that work are attributable to 
H irvey. 



HIS PUPILS. 



lOI 



JAMES REIVELEY 

Was another pupil who engraved on wood in a most excellent style, and has 
hitherto hardly received sufficient recognition. The compiler of the catalogue 
for a sale of Davison's stock, which took place after the death of the latter, in 
1858, speaks of Reiveley's work in the highest terms. Rciveley cut 28 of the 
animals and 88 of the birds for the small paper-backed book on Natural 
History issued by Davison (not his edition of Buffon) ; and these small cuts 
show excellent workmanship. 

HENRY HOLE. 

Mr. i\ustin Dobson tells us his full name was Henry Fulke Plantagenet 
Woolicombe Hole. He was the son of a captain in the Lancashire militia, and 
was a fellow apprentice with Clennell and Willis. He engraved some of the 
cuts in the British Birds. He practised as an engraver at Liverpool, and 
worked on the cuts in M'Creery's Press (1803), and in the Poems by Felicia 
Dorothea Brown (1S03), afterwards Mrs. Hemans. He received much praise 
for a vignette to Shepherd's Poggio, but gave up the practice of wood engrav- 
ing on succeeding to a large estate. 

EDWARD WILLIS 
Was a cousin of George Stephenson, the great engineer. He went to live in 
London, but soon abandoned his art. He and Stephenson were both the 
grandsons of Robert Carr, one of the old dyers in Ovingham, figured in a 
vignette in the second volume of the Birds, carrying a tub between them. 
Carr, Miss Bewick tells us, was a man remarkable for his simplicity, industry, 
and integrity. 

W. W. TEMPLE 
Worked with Harvey and Robert E. Bewick on Bewick's Fables, 18 18. 
Bewick says of them, in his Memoirs, they "were eager to do their utmost to 
forward me in the engraving business, and in my struggles to get the book 
ushered into the world;" but as soon as Temple was free from his apprentice- 
ship he became a draper, and for years he occupied the shop in Grey Street, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where the North- Eastern Bank now stands. 

HENRY WHITE. 

Mr. Dobson considers he was an exceedingly clever workman. He engraved 
some of the best of the cuts in Yarrell's standard work on Fishes; a book 
which always commands a high price^ He also engraved Thurston's designs 
for an edition of Burns, and many of Cruikshanks' squibs for Hone. 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 




EBENEZER LANDELLS 
Survived until i860. He worked mucli for Punch and The Illustrated London 
News, and, Mr. Dobson says, succeeded admirably in rendering Landseer's 
animals. 

JOHN JACKSON, 
So often mentioned in these pages, was born at Ovingham in iSqi. Redgrave 
says he was first a pupil of Armstrong, and afterwards of Bewick. He had 
some disagreement with the 



latter, which led to him leav- 
ing before the expiration of 
his indentures, which it is said 
Bewick cancelled, by cutting 
his own and his son's name 
from them. Be this as it may^ 
Jackson does not withhold the 
very highest praise from his 
master in his Treatise on Wood 
Engraving (where he gis'es a 
portrait.engravedby himself of 
T.Bewick), pp. 584-5-6, edition 
1839, although he claims the credit he considered due for Johnson, Nesbit, 
Clennell, and Harvey, and, notwithstanding a good deal of angry controversy 
on the subject, his testimony 
on this point has never been 
materially shaken. 

After lea\'ing Bewick, 
Jackson worked in London, 
under Harvey, engraving 
many of his designs. Un- 
like Ifarvey, he never aban- 
doned wood engraving; and 
while one was considered the 
best designer, the other was 
deemed the best engraver in 
London at that time (1830- 
40) ; a time so prolific under 
the stimulus of Charles 
Knight's enterprise, of illustrated serial books and magazines. Jackson 
carried out on the wood an immense quantity of Harvey's best designs for 



(In the Editor's collection..) 

A fine woodcut, probably by Anderson. Formerly 
in the Hugo collection. 




(Lent hy Roljcit Smith, t.M|., Al.lJ.) 

Frum Bloomfield's Farmer's Boy, page 6, edition iSoo. 
( >n the title page of thii rare edition it is stated, 
" Witli Wood Engravings by Anderson." 



HIS PUPILS. 




Northcote's Fables, Lane's Thousand and One Nights, and the Penny Mag- 
azine. But his name is perhaps most generally associated with the Treatise 

on Wood Engraving, so often quoted 
in these pages. It appeared in 183Q 
(during his Hfetime) as J^ackson^s 
Treatise, etc. This work seems (as in 
Bewick's case in the History of Quad- 
rupeds) to have been conceived by 
Jackson, the subject matter thought 
over, the facts collected, and the wood 
blocks prepared by him. When, find- 
ing his literary capacity at fault, he 
communicated the idea to IVIr. W. A. 
Chatto (also a Northumbrian), and 
associated him (as Bewick did Beilby) 
with himself in the undertaking, so far as writing the letterpress was concerned, 
although it appears the book, when finished, was Jackson's book, published in his 

name at his sole risk, and not even 
a partnership affair, as in the case 
of Beilby and Bewick. We can- 
not, therefore, adopt the view 
tacitly implied by Mr. Thomson, 
who generally speaks of Cliatto's 
Treatise on Wood Engraving, 
and openly adopted by Mr. 
Dobson, that Jackson did not 
deserve the credit he received for 
it. The latter says : — 



(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

Bj' Anderson. From Bloomfield's Farmers 

Boy, page 49, edition iSoo. 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., JLD.) 

An illustration formerly in the Rev. Thos. Hugo's 
collection, and described by him as bein? from " ' Tlie 
Fanner s Boy : \ Rural Poem. By Robert Bloom- 
field. London : Printed for Vernor and Hood, 



" His [Jackson's] name has, how- 
ever, obtained more prominence than it 
actually deserves from its connection 
with a book to which we have fre- 
quently made reference, and to which no 
student of wood engraving can fail to 
be indebted, namely', the treatise on that 
art hitherto currently known as Jackson 
ami Cliatto. When this volume first ap- 
peared, in 1839, an angry controversy 
arose as to the relative claims of the 
engraver and his colleague to the 
honours of authorship. We do not pro- 
pose to stir the ashes of this ancient 
dispute ; still, it may be stated that Mr. Chatto appears to have had but scant justice done to him 
in the matter, for, with a few reservations, the composition and preparation of the book were 



Poultry, by T. Bensley, Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 
MDCCC' 4to. Pp. xvi., 102. With woodcuts attri- 
buted to Thomas Bewick ; but they are not in his 
style. I believe them to be by Anderson." Hugo 
must here allude to the 1830 edition, which has 
always been attributed to Bewick by the booksellers, 
as Anderson's name was suppressed on the title page ; 
but, as we have seen, the 1800 edition does give 
Anderson as the engraver. 



104 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



entirely his. Indeed, Jackson was in no sense ' literary,' and could not possibly have undertaken 
it ; and, although he provided and paid for the illustrations, the attributing of them en masse to 
him personally is manifestly an error, as the major part of the fac -similes of old woodcuts were 
the work of the late Mr. Fairholt, 

and were chiefly engraved hj a ^ly.T&A'^tP?^*^ -^ ==i> ?'■''' \ 

j'oung pupil of Jackson's named 
Stephen Flimbnult. Others were 
executed by J. \V. Whymper. Of 
the blocks actually from the graver 
of Jackson himself the best are the 
'Partridge' and the 'Woodcock,' 
after Bewick, which are favourable 
specimens of his powers. Jackson's 
true position with regard to the 
whole book seems to have been 
rather that of projector than of a 
author ; and it is satisfactory to 
know that in the third edition, 
which has been recently issued, due 
prominence has been given on the 
title page to the hitherto insuffi- 
ciently recognised labours of Mr. 
Chatto." 




U/, 



(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 
This and the four following cuts are signed by Nicholson. 



r 



If we refer to the first edition itself (1S30) called Jacisotis Treatise, etc., 
the matter seems to be put in a reasonable light by the parties themselves 
concerned, and as if they 
were generously anxious to 
give all the credit necessary 
and due to each other, with- 
out the slightest appearance 
of jealousy or misunderstand- 
ing. Each write and sign a 
preface. Mr. Chatto con- 
cludes his — a very learned 
and interesting one, which 
incidentally assumes he is 
the writer — by saying: — (Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 

" It is but justice to Mr. Jackson to add that the work was commenced by him at his sole 
risk ; that most of the subjects are of his selection ; and that nearly all of them were engraved, and 
that a great part of the work was written, before he thought of applying to a publisher. The credit 
of commencing tlie work and of illustrating it so profusely, regardless of expense, is unquestion- 
ably due to him. W. A. Chatto. 
London, 5//; Decemler^ 1838." 

Mr. Jackson says : — 

" I feel it my duty to submit to the public a few remarks introductory to the Preface which 
bears the signature of ^Ir. Chatto. 

From the first occasion on which my attention was directed to the subject to the present 
time, I have had frequent occasion to regret that the early history and practice of the art, were not 
to be found in any book in the English language. In the most expensive works of this descrip- 




HIS PUPILS. 



lo; 




(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., M.D.) 



tion the process itself is not even correctly described, so that the reader — supposing him to be 
unacquainted with the subject — is obliged to follow the author in comparative darkness. Both 
with a view to amuse and improve myself as a wood engraver, I had long been in the habit of study- 
ing such productions of the old masters as came within my reach, and could not help noting the 
simple mistakes that many authors made in consequence of their knowing nothing of the practice. 
The farther I prosecuted the inquiry the more interesting it became ; every additional piece of 

information strengthening my first 
opinion, that, ' if the practice, as 
well as the history, of wood engrav- 
ing, were better understood ' we 
should not have so many erroneous 
statements respecting both the his- 
tory and capabilities of the art. At 
length I determined upon engrav- 
ing in my leisure hours a fac-simile 
of an3'thing I thought worth pre- 
serving For some time I con- 
tinued to pursue this course, read- 
ing such English authors as have 
written on the origin and early his- 
tory of wood engraving, and making 
memoranda, without proposing to 
myself any particular plan. It was 
not until I had proceeded thus far 
that I stopped to consider whether 
the information I had gleaned could not be applied to some specific purpose. Jly plan, at this time, 
was to give a short introductory history to precede the practice of the art, which I proposed should 
form the principal feature in the work. At tliis period I was fortunate in procuring the able assist- 
ance of i\Ir. ^V. A. Chatto, with whom I have examined every work that called for the exercise of 
practical knowledge. This naturally anticipated much that had been reserved for the practice, 
and has in some degree extended the historical portion beyond what I had originally con- 
templated, although, I trust, the reader will have no occasion to regret such a deviation from the 
original plan, or that it has not been written by myself. The number and variety of the subjects 
it has been found necessary to introduce rendered it a task of some difficulty to preserve the 
characteristics of each individual master, \-arying as they do in the style of execution. It only 
remains for me to add that, although I had the hardihood to venture upon such an undertaking, 
it was not without a hope that the history of the art, with an account of the practice, illustrated 
with numerous wood engravings, would be looked upon with indulgence from one who only 
professed to give a fac-simile of whatever appeared worthy of notice with ojsinions founded on a 
practical knowledge of the art. JOHN Jackso.v. 

London, I'^th December, 183S." 

No spirit of rivalry breathes in 
these remarks ; nothing but a simple 
and earnest sense of mutual co-opera- 
tion, and it seems a pity that such a 
fine work should have become the 
theme of angry controversy rather 
than remain, as it deserves, a monu- 
ment, not only of the industry of 
Jackson and the learning and research 
of Chatto, but also a beautiful work of 
art and a most valuable book of reference to all hereafter interested in wood 
engraving. . We have thought it due to Jackson's memory to give those 







(Lent by Robert Smith, Esq., Jl.D.) 



io6 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



unacquainted with the Treatise these extracts, and those well acquainted with 
that work can pass them over. It needs only to be added, that Jackson died in 
London, 27th March, 1848, at the comparatively early age of forty-seven. 

A. ANDERSON 
Imitated his master's touch so admirably that his work has often been mistaken 
for Thomas Bewick's, He went to America, and very unjustifiably pirated the 
whole of the History of Quadncpeds in his master's lifetime, cutting exact 
copies soon after they were brought out in England, and before the copyright 
had expired.* He illustrated the edition of Junius' Letters, often now attri- 
buted by the booksellers to Bewick. A Bewick collector told us he once saw 
the contemporary advertisement of that edition, when it first came out, in 
which it was distinctly announced as with woodcuts by Anderson. 

ISAAC NICHOLSON, 
Redgrave tells us, preceded Harvey in the workshop. A fellow-apprentice 
speaks of him as " one of Bewick's cleverest scholars, had his ambition 
corresponded with his taste." He established himself as a wood-engraver 
in Newcastle, and did much work in his master's style, and, Mr. Thomson 
says, "achieved some dis- 
tinction in his profession." 
He took several portraits 
of his master. A fine 
line engraving, of one of 
them, was executed in 1816, 
by T. Ranson. In 1820, 
Charlton Nesbit engraved 
from another (taken at 
Chillingham) a woodcutf 
for the Select Fables ; and 
quite lately the great etcher, 
Leopold Flameng, has taken 
the other Nicholson portrait (a water-colour in the possession of Mr. T. E. 
Crawhall) for his theme. Bewick cannot, therefore, have been averse to sitting 
to Nicholson, and expresses pleasure in his letter to Miss Baileyt at the thought 

* Hugo, in his Bewick Collector, p.i,2;e 24, says : "An edition in 8vo. was printed at New 
Yorl< in 1804, under the title of \i General History of Quadrupeds : the P'igures Engraved on 
Wood ; Chiefly Copied from the Original of T. BewiLk. By A. Anderson. 1st American 
Edition. With an Appendix containing some American Animals not hitherto described. New 
York, &c., &c.' Some of the cuts in this volume are truly wonderful copies of the originals. 
The book may be seen in the British Museum." 

t Nicholson was taking a portrait of Bewick's friend, Mr. Bailey, at the same time. 

J See page 64, preceding. 




HIS PUPILS. 



of meeting him, although, in i8::6, he writes in very severe though perfectly 
justifiable terms, to reproach " Mr. Charnley, whom I had fondly considered 
as my friend," for having got some one to copy one of his designs to illustrate 
Robert Roxby's Fishcrh Garhmd, and adds, "I suppose Mr. Nicholson was 
the artist employed in this unfriendly business ; if so, I shall be obliged to 
convince him of the impropriety of his conduct." Nicholson died in 184S. 

JOHN THURSTON, 
Though not a pupil of Bewick's, seems to require some notice here, as he was 
much connected with the Newcastle engravers, furnishing six designs for 
Bunyan's Pilgrim s Progress (printed in Taunton, by J. Poole, 1806), which 
were cut on wood by Thomas Bewick ; and the Treatise on Wood Engraving 
tells us he was at that time "the principal and indeed only artist of any 
.^ talent in London 



^'Tr'-^i: 




who made drawings 
on the block for 
wood engravers." 
He made designs 
that were engraved 
by Nesbit, Clennell, 
Branston, and Hole ; 
and two very beau- 
tiful woodcuts are 
given here, which 
came from the 
Bewick workshop, 

(From the Bewick Sale, 228.) Design attributed to Tliurston, and which we think 

and engraved probably by T. Bewick. are from designs by 

Thurston. He was a native of Scarborough, -'and originally a copperplate 
engraver. He engraved, under the late Mr. James Heath, parts of the two 
celebrated plates of the ' Death of Major Peirson ' and the ' Dead Soldier.' He 
was one of the best designers on wood of his time. He drew very beautifully, 
but his designs, Jackson tells us, are too frequently deficient in natural character 
and feeling. He died in 1821. 

Bewick tells us he had often in his lonely walks debated with himself 
whether the plan he had once formed of working alone without apprentices, or 
the plan he adopted, would have been the best. Each, he thinks, would have 
had advantages and disadvantages. "I should not have experienced the envy 
and ingratitude of some of my pupils, neither should I, on the contrary, have 
felt the pride and the pleasure I derived from so many of them having received 



loS 



LIFE OF THOMAS BEWICK. 



medals or premiums from the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, and 
taken the lead as engravers on wood in the Metropolis. Notwithstanding this 
pride and this pleasure I am inclined to think I should have had — balancing 
the good against the bad — more pleasure in working alone for myself." 

But here we think we may venture to differ from him, and to assert without 
fear of contradiction, that he led a happier and a larger life in fulfilling the 
social and generous instincts of his nature, and surrounding hmiself with a band 
of comrades to whom he handed on the torchlight of his genius, which, though 
burning with a somewhat paler flame, has yet been worthily borne aloft by them 
to the delight and enlightenment of succeeding generations. 



' -ff'.i^^^ 




(From the Bewick Sale, 229.) Desitjn attributed to Tliurston, 
and engraved probably by T. Bewick. 

The following hitherto unpublished letter may seem fitly to conclude this 
account of the pupils. It is in the possession of the Editor, and in the hand- 
writing of Thomas Bewick, and was addressed to J. H. Bigge, Esq., of Lindon, 
who inserted it as an autograph in a copy of the iSiS edition oi AIsop' s Fables. 
Mr. Bigge was a member of the firm of Sir Matthew Ridley & Co., bankers, in 
Newcastle, of which Mr. William Boyd, the editor's grandfather, was another 
partner. 

J. H. Bigge, Esq. "N.C., wth July, 1823. 

Sn^, — We are this morning favor'd with your letter of yesterday's date — the main 
purport of which is to request us to cancel the indenture. If this were done, and the young man 
were offered to us the next day, we would not make any alteration in our terms, unless a sufficient 
premium were paid us as an apjirentice fee ; but as he is perfectly satisfied, we can see no reason 
to comply with your request, and as we wish the young man well, we are quite at a loss to know 
what his friends have in view for him, or what they may please to do towards the .advancement of 
his prosperity in life. 

We are. Sir, with the greatest respect. 

Your obliged and obedient, 

Thomas Beuick & Sox." 



t 



Part II, 



BEWICK GLEAXINGS. 




(From the Bewick Sale, i ) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 






{\ ^ jiw the Bewick Sale, 2, 3,4.) 



BEWICK GLEAXINGS. 






(From the Bewick Sale, 5, 6, 7.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 








-#&^&^^ 




(From the Bewick Sale, 8, 9, 10.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 








wM/M. ^^^'^^ /^••:yt'i'tU^ 



M^:, 






-,,.7j*.-..;. 



«<»^„^ 



"•Mi?*' 
\ 










if^%-: »-*. - 




litsa: ; s 







(Frorr. the Eewitk Sale, TI, 12, 13.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIIVGS. 






(From the Bewick Sale, 14, 15, 16.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 





















(Fram the Bewick Sale, 17, iS, 19.) 



BEWICK GLEANIAGS. 




**»i>«aie-^B^"iiii/mniiii_ 







-JN 



(From the Bewick Sale, 20, 21, 22 ' 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




m m ^ 'A. ^--.-:. L-L._5sii\\\\\\\V''^ 





(From the Bewick Sale, 13, 24, 25.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




_^.^ 







—,;„;„„—> ., sill'"' 





(From the Bewick Sale, 26, 27 28.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



1 1 









(From the Bewick Sale. 29, 30, 31,) 



IC 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



B^.u 





Ji! T ^-S>-5* J^-v ^5tfe, 








(From the Bewick Sale, 3:, 33, 34.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



\-\ 









(From the Bewick Sale, 35, 36, 37.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 






{From the Bewick Sale, 38, 39, 40.) 



BEWICK G LEA XING S. 







.|l«'i..innim....— ™»...«<,'""" -'iMitiMiimililliriii. nimill 




^^"O'-'^^^^^'*^ 




(From the Bewick Sale, 41, 42, 43.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 








^*5^P*|w«"'«;g^^^^'^l 




(From the Bewick Sale, 4-I-, 45, 46.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 






if^^'^lT- 










"-JIS^ 




^r-^f.faj^' /.^C45 ^^^ 




(From the Bewick Sale, 47. +S, 49 ) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 







■?^i^SJ!;ji.iili 





(From the Bewick Sale, 50, 51. 52.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




i 






/ 




l(iii'iiifl^^^!>^*-'^^ ' ■-'-*'' 





(From the Bewick Sale, 53, 54, 55.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 








(From the Bewick Sale, 55, 57, 58.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 





II,,; jliB.tu - — • 




C1^ 



(From the Bewlcic Sale, 59, 60, 61.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




^^i^^^^^^^^3^'f9^0Sii ^^ 








(From the Bewick Sale, 62, 63. 64.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



^^J-^!^^ 






(From the Bewick Sale, 65. 66, 67.) 



-4 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



^'Xff^'^''^^^^.^,,^,.,;^^ 





immulil fii,,,MiiiiW ~ 







(From the Bewick Sale, 6S, 69, 70.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 











(From the Bewick Sale, 71, 72, 73 ) 



20 



BE I i 'ICK GLEANING S. 









(From the Bewick Sale, 74, 75, 76.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



27 




^ii" 







IV' 



,1 




(From the Bewick Sale, 77, 78, 79,) 



2S 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




"""''^^^£^ 





(From the Bewick Sale, So, Si, 82.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




^^^ -S\-v% 








(From the Bewick Sale, 83. S4. 85.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



"K. V 








-iitiL-ii'M^.iiiiii:;..; 




(From the Bewick Sale, 86, 87, 88.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



^ I 






-""^ '"'ofcc^ 



JJ 



4 



^ 



'/ 



Y , 









'.^- 



; 



] ' 1 













'iri»?i;.; r.-.^ " 




(From the Bewick Sale, 89, 90, 91.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 















(From the Bewick Sale. 92, 93. 9;.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



33 




V #^^^^"^'*'***"^^^ 





(From the Bewick Sale, 95. 96, 97.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



^'^■6 












y^' 



'•%bi^ v> 










gm^m, 










ff^W '""^ 



^ f- . 




(From the Bewick Sale. 9S, 99. 100.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



35 






(From the Bewkk Sale, loi, 102, 103.) 



36 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 











"^S? 4fe 



*%*% 








(From the Bewick Sale, 104, 105, 106. I07.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 







""'f-rilllll!!::''. .- r. — ..-..".(ll'"""" ' 





(From the Bewick Sale, loS, 109, no, in.) 



38 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




«3i==ir-t=;,";,i||||llllllll(illiii"ii"""'" 









(From the Bewick Sale, 1 12, 113, 114, 115.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



3') 



: ..t^.^-^'^^^^^v^ 







(From the Bewick Sale, ii6, 117, riS, 119 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



-«£:- 










!>^ ~'fv^f~': 




i ''l^2l.^^ii^M^ltM/''Z^'f^^'':^':r-^^ 










(From the Bewick Sale, 120, 121, 122.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



4' 




i; "-^ 






'^-x-^^V. 5>^ ^ %v 






V 










l-^. 



.<*^?fe- 




(From the Bewick Sale, 123, 124, 125) 



42 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 





■:^'£^ 




miM^ 



(From the Bewick Sale, 126, 127, 128.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



43 














(From the Bewick Sale, 129, 130, 131.) 



44 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 






(From the Bewick Sale, 132, 133, 134.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



45 




4®^^,-*'^*^;}::;*^ 



*_■' 








(From the Eewick Sale, 135, 136, 137.) 



46 



BE WICK G LEAXIXG S. 




-> , *s. 



u>) •''; 



\ .ji-^^ 




S£. 







(From the Bewick Sale, 13S, 139, 140.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



flK'^-?'^^^' -^ 





^^«Sr:g^-;^fe^^,^^"^-. 





", , (^ . -'11 V-*-is j^i-'^ 



(From the Bewick Sale, 141, 1+2, 143) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




m. 



wk 












(From the Eenick Sale, 144, 145. 14^.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



49 






(From the Bewick Sale, 147, i^8, 149 ) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 









(From the Bewick Sale, 150, 151, 152 ) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




J" *- 



U Jfei^ ^^^ 








(From thtr Bewick Sale, 153, 154, 155.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




^'^^'il 





.^■-,.„---Kf;i 








(From the Bewick Sale, 156, 157, 1 58.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 









(From the Bewick Sale, 159, 160, 161.) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 




^Mli&^ 



ffe\^ ^ 








(From the Bewick Sale, 162, 163, if*4-) 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 




4 '-^ 





(From the Bewick Sale, 165, 166, 167,) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 










,. mm^- 




- ___ 4^?^^-"i='^v 




(From the Bewick Sale, 168, 165, 170.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 







0. /'(.^ <:-,'■ 







^i 








3^ = -3a^ « xV^j:^eG£:3JE£:- 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 









(From the Bewick Sjle, 174, 175, 176.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



59 













(From the Bewick Sale, 177, 178, 179.) 



bo 



BEWICK (iLEAX/XGS. 



s^^a*p\^ "^^"Sn 











^^^-fy^' 




-^SSJi^^iJi^- (5„£fe'»^f«^ 



(From the Beuiik Sale, iSo, iSi, i?2.) 



BE WICK G LEANING S. 



61 




.V*-. -'E*^^ -r- 





(From the Bewick Sale, 1S3, 1S4, 185.) 



62 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 






(From the Bewick Sale, i86, 187, 188.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



63 










(From the Bewick Sale, 1S9, 190, 191.) 



64 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 









-i^^S#*-lSfeMl%E3>«»^-^=^^ 



(From the Bewick Sale, 192, 193. 19+) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



6^ 



J'*^*!^^ 












.-3^ .,„. -.^.„. 








(From the Cewick Sale, 195, 196, 197.) 



•" ? 










_»awr* 



sg% 



_.^^3?i 






'kf>^'..^.LMMMrm^'^ ^^\-€ 





(From the Bewick S.ilc, 198, 199 2C0.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



('1 



^^^ 




,"^^2^3^"^ 





(From the Bewick Sals, 201, Z02, 203.) 



6S 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 











(From the Bewick Sale, 204, 205.) 






si=?) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS 



69 





70 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 




Rev. C. Gbegson, Vicar of Ovingham. 




(From the Bewick Sale, 288, 209.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



7' 





(From the Bewick Sale, zio, 21 1.) 



72 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 






(From the Bewick Sale, 2iz, 213, 214.) 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 73 



NOTES ON THE "BEWICK SALE" WOOD 

BLOCKS. 



[Memo. — The edition of the History of Quadrupeds referred to in these Notes was published 

in 1824.] 



No. I. A Waggon and Horses. — This very fine block is the largest of the 
series, and is cut by Thomas Bewick's own hand. Mr. Thomson (page 169) 
mentions it thus : — 

"About 1799, Bewick engraved a bloclc, 7 by i^ inches, which was never used, of a four- 
horse waggon descending a hill, which Atkinson mentions was done for a c.irrier in Leeds, who 
objected to the price when it was sent to him, and returned it. In its passage to or from Leeds 
the block was injured, which irritated Bewick considerably." 

On referring to Mr. Atkinson's Memoir we find he says it was engraved in 
1818, and speaks of it as a «'.v-horse waggon (to the last statement Mr. Hugo 
puts a " ? "), and the latter catalogues a cut from it in his Collector, page 464, 
as a "/b«;--horse waggon descending a hill, with a fifth horse carrying a driver's 
wallet," given to him by Mr. John Bell, who had lent it to Mr. Atkinson. As 
we have seen in the account of the Chillingham Bull, Mr. Bell had an inac- 
curate memory, and contradicted his own written statements ; and as Mr. 
Atkinson's story was derived from him, probably this accounts for the discrep- 
ancies as to the date and number of horses, as there can be no doubt this is the 
identical block alluded to. To the Editor it appears, rather, as if the waggoner 
was endeavouring to steady his team, fearing the effect that the appearance of 
a riderless horse crossing their path might have upon them. 

No. 2. The Common Cart-Horse. — The well-executed httle background 
in this cut is entirely different to that at page 13, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 3. The Improved Cart-Horse. — This is an almost exact transcript, 
save that it is taken the reverse way, of that at page 14, History of Quadrupeds, 
including the interesting little scene in the background of the passage of a ford 
by a horse and cart, and a gentleman on horseback with a lady on a pillion 
about to enter it. Bewick tells us that the original horse from which the 
drawing was made was in the possession of George Baker, Esq.. of Elemore, in 
the County of Durham. 

No. 4. Huntsman and Hounds. — The hounds are running in full crv, 
the huntsman galloping hard behind them, and the scenery such as may be 
seen any day in the North of England. The same design may be found at 
page 323, British Birds, Vol. I.; but the composition of this woodcut is better, 
and in point of execution, also, is exquisitely delicate. 

No. 5. The I.mpro\"ed Holstein, or Dutch Breed. {Bos Taurus. — Lin. 
Le Taureau. — Buff.) — See page 30, History of Quadrupeds. This is taken the 
reverse way. It is well cut. The men with scythes, and other details in the 
background, are closely followed. 



No. 6. The LoNG-HoR\Kn, or Lancashire Breed — A very fine woodcut. 
The design is the same as at page 33, History of Quadrupeds, but the animal 
is looking the opposite way; also, page 17, Cabinet Natural History. ^ Note 
the moun^tains in the background, indicating the country from which this race 
has sprung. 

No. 7. Vignette. — I think an original, unpublished design. 

No. 8. The Brazilian Porcupine. [Histrix Prehensilis. — Lin. Hab., 
Mexico and Brazil.) — This block, reversed from page 485, History of Quadru- 
peds, is very life-like; but I think it, as well as Nos. 9, 11, and 12, are 
unfinished. 

No. 9. The Hare. {Lepus timidus. — Lin. Le Licvre. — Bufi". Hab., 
general in Europe). — The same design as at page 369, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. ID. The Rook and a Frog. — See page 173, History of Quadrupeds, 
where a similar vignette may be found at the end of the notice of the 
Rabiroussa. Some of the details are omitted ; but the bird in this vignette 
is more knowing and expressive. 

No. II. The Lancashire Ox. — Taken the reverse way to that at page 35, 
History of Quadrupeds. Though characteristic, and the background nicely 
done, it is harder. 

No. 12. The Mastiff. (Canis Molossus. — Lin. Le Dogue. — Buff.) — 
This very fine animal looks the opposite way, and has a different background 
to that at page 336, History of Quadrupeds. A dog-fight, attended by 
youngsters, is in lull progress. 

No. 13. The Tailpiece to the \Vhixch.-\t (at page 276, British Birds) is so 
e.xactly, line for line, the same as this woodcut that it is difficult, after the most 
careful comparison, not to believe they are from the same block. As in the 
different editions of the Birds the tailpieces vary, this block may quite possibly 
have been used in some of them. 

No. 14. The Hunter. — See page 8, History of Quadrupeds. The e.xquisite 
little background that may there be found, is here entirely omitted. 

No. 15. The Arabian Horse. — This is the same design, and taken 
looking the same way, as that at page 4, History of Quadrupeds; but in this 
also the background is omitted. 

No. 16. The Cart le.ading Timber. — How lifelike is the expression in the 
poor old horse, with his bent knees, raised head, and lowered ears, prepared to 
receive the blow from the old man's uplifted stick, as he viciously holds him 
tight down by the bit, grasping the rein in his other hand ; and the figure of 
the old man is a perfect little picture in itself. One would know Thomas 
Wood with his unmistakable clothes anywhere. The timber is being led into 
Newcastle by the Moor. The "poke" on the top looks like a woolpack, the 
produce perhaps of some country squire's estate in Northumberland, and Saint 
Nicholas' steeple is seen in the distance. No difference, e-xcepting that this 
woodcut is a little longer, can be easily traced between it and the one at page 
261, British Birds, Vol. I. 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



75 



No. 17. The Ass. {Eqiius Asinus. — Lin. IJAnc. — Buff.) — This block 
is taken the reverse way to that at page 19, Hisiivy of Quadrupeds, and the 
group of the old man on an ass with panniers, his dog, and other figures in 
the background, is omitted ; but the trees and railings which are substituted 
are delicately worked up, and the general effect of the woodcut is good. See 
also page 6, Bewick's Cabinet of Natural History, 1809. 

No. 18. The Mule. — The animal is the same design, looking the reverse 
way, as at page 16, Historv of Quadrupeds, but the Ijackground of a river 
bank, with mules of burden crossing a ford, is entirely different. 

No. 19. Vignette. This recalls slightly the one at page 105, History of 
Quadrupeds, where a lamb is the victim. But this is a much more beautiful 
little picture. The eagle is finer, the rabbit well drawn, and the background 
quite differently treated. 

No. 20. The Chamois Goat. {Capra Rupicapra. — Lin. Ysarus ou 
&;-;■«.— Buff. Hab., the Alps.) — See page 81, History of Quadrupeds. The 
position of the woodcuts is reversed, and in this one a little Chamois in the 
background is omitted. 

No. 21. The Camei.eopard. {Cervus Camclopardalis. — Lin. La Giraffe. 
— Buff. Hab., deserts of Africa.) — See page 118, History of Quadrupeds. This 
is not highly finished. It is taken the reverse way, and one cameleopard and 
two men are omitted from the distant background. 

No. 22. Vignette. — I think an original design. 

No. 23. The Ibex. {Capra Ibex. — Lin. Le Bouquetin. — Buff. Hab., 
the Higher Alps and Crete.) — This woodcut follows that at page So, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 24. The Ar.\bian' Camel, or Dromedary. ( Camelus Dromcdarius. 
— Lin. Lc Dromedairc. — Buff. Hab., Northern Africa.) — This woodcut is 
from a duplicate block similar to that at page 154, History of Quadrupeds, but 
taken the reverse way, and with some notable additions, such as the back- 
ground of hills, which throws up the procession of dromedaries in the distance, 
and the fine group of palm trees, which gives a characteristic touch to the 
whole scene and brings the desert in a vivid little picture before us. A happy 
afterthought of the artist, confirming the idea that another set of blocks were 
in preparation. This design has a peculiar interest for the Bewick student, 
being the first he drew for the History, and the fact that he was engaged upon 
it when he heard of the death of his father, Nov. 15, 1785. 

No. 25. Vignette. — A ship in full sail. 

No. 26. The Roe-Buck. — {Cervus Capreolus. — Lin. La Chevreuil.— 
Buff. Hab., Highlands of Scotland, North America.) — This woodcut closely 
resembles that at page 146, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 27. The American Elk. — (Hab., Canada.) — Bewick says it differs 
very much from the Moose-deer Elk. Though this is a good woodcut it is not 
nearly so beautiful as that at page 125, History of Quadrupeds, which is really 
one of the finest of Thomas Bewick's animals. 

No. 28. Vignette. — Boy and wheelbarrow. 



7t> 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



No. 2q. The Musk. — [Mosclms Moschiferiis. — Lin. Lc Muse. — Buff. 
Hab.. Thibet and China.)— This blocii is well cut, and closely resembles that at 
page 11^, History of Qnadnipcds^ but the animal looks the other wa}'. 

No. 30. The Nvi.-Ghau. (Hab., India.) — A little smaller than that at 
page 112, History of Quadrupeds, and is taken the reverse way. This wood- 
cut is lifelike, and seems well executed. Palm trees are introduced to indicate 
India, not found in the first edition of it. 

No. 3 1 . Tailpiece to the Ring Dotterel (page 381, British Birds, Vol. II.) 
— It is impossible to distinguish the slightest difference between the two wood- 
cuts. They must be from the same hand, if not, as I think probable, off the 
same block. 

No. 32. The Wood Goat. (Hab., Cape of Good Hope.) — Rather smaller 
than that at page 92, History of Quadrupeds, and taken the reverse way. Very 
nicely cut. 

No. 33. The A.xis, or Ganges St.ag. (Z'^-J.v«.— Buff. Hab., the plains 
of India near the Ganges.) — This pretty woodcut is almost the same as that at 
page 141, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 34. Vignette. — I think an original design. 

No. 35. I. — The Chevrotai.v. (Buff. Hab., Guinea.) 2. — The Spotted 
Meminna. (Hab., Ceylon.) — The design for these tiny animals is the same as at 
page 109, History of Quadrupeds, and is well executed. 

No. 36. The Stag, or Red-Dker. {Cervus Eleplias. — Lin. Le Cerf. — 
Buff. Hab., Highlands of the British Isles.) — In this woodcut the stag is 
looking the opposite way. It is rather smaller, and not nearly so beautiful, as 
that at page 135 (which is one of the most graceful and delicate in the Quad- 
rupeds). 

No. 37. A Bird's Nest. — Birds' nests may be found as tailpieces to the 
fable of " The Ape and her Two Young Ones " {Select Eables, page 320), and to 
"The Pied Wagtail " (British Birds, Vo\. I., page 231) ; but they differ entirely 
from this one in design, more even than they differ from one another. 

No. 38. The Zebra. [Equus Zebra. — Lin. Le Zebrc. — Buff. Hab., 
Southern Africa.) — This design has been reproduced in works illustrated by 
Bewick again and again, from the tiny cut in A New Lottery Book of Birds 
and Beasts, 24mo., 1771 (said to be Thomas Bewick's third work, and where 
so many of his designs appear for the first time) up through many others, in- 
cluding the History of Quadrupeds, page 22, A Cabinet of Natural History, 
published in 1809, to the gigantic woodcut executed for Mr. Pidcock, a speci- 
men of which may be seen in the Natural History Museum, Newcastle. Mr. 
Pearson remarks, " Bewick was evidently fond of delineating this graceful 
animal, several specimens of his production in various sizes being in the collec- 
tion." 

No. 39. The Co.\l\ion Antelope. [Capra Cervicapra. — Lin. IJ Ante- 
lope. — Buff. Hab., North Africa.) — This beautiful design, but taken the 
opposite way, is the same as at page 106, History of Quadrupeds, and at page 
9, Foreign Quadrupeds, 1809, published at Alnwick. This seems even more 
lifelike and spirited. 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



77 



No. 40. Vignette. — A deer eating the branch of a tree. I think 
critics will agree in thinking that this is cut, as well as designed, by Thomas 
Bewick's own hand, and in his best manner. 

No. 41. The Badger. (Ursus Mclcs. — Lin. Le Blaircau, ou Taison. — 
Buff. Hab., generally distributed throughout Europe.) — See page 281, History 
of Quadrupeds. This woodcut has less background, and is reversed ; but the 
badgers themselves are much alike. 

No. 42. The Musk Bull. (Hab., interior of North America.) — The 
drawing and cutting of this block is most exquisite. It is taken the reverse 
way, and everything, excepting the animal (which seems as good as the 
original) differs from that at page 40, Historv of Quadrupeds, and indeed 
seems an improvement on it. The head of another bull, appearing round the 
corner, is omitted ; the stiff bit of rock is broken and diversified ; the branch of 
the tree is treated with great freedom and beauty ; the ground, and gradation of 
distance, bespeaks the utmost feeling and finish ; and the whole bears the 
stamp of originality that leaves little doubt it had been a favourite subject 
with the elder Bewick, and that we have here an improved version from the 
graver of the great master. 

No. 43. Vignette.— Sickle and corn. 

No. 44. The Elk. (Ccrvus Alecs. — Lin. L^EIan. — Buff. Hab., Northern 
Europe and North America, where it is called the Moose-Deer.) — This is taken 
the reverse way to that at page 120, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 45. Sheep of the Tees-water Improved Breed. — Reversed from 
that at page 6 1 , Histoiy of Quadrupeds. 

No. 46. The Domestic Rabbit. — See page 376, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 47. The Pied Goat. (Hab., Cape of Good Hope and Senegal.) — 
Taken the reverse way to that at page 9 1 , History of Quadrupeds. The back- 
ground is more filled up. 

No. 48. The Cheviot Ram. — A well-cut block. The same design, but 
reversed from that at page 58, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 49. The R.\BBiT. {Leptis Cunicuhis. — Lin. Lc Lapin. — Buff.) — See 
page 374, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 50. A Heath Ram of the Improved Breed. — This woodcut is 
smaller and taken the opposite way to that at page 57, History of Quadrupeds. 
See also Cabinet of Natural History, page 9. Bewick says the ram from 
which this drawing was taken belonged to the then Bishop of Durham (Doctor 
Barrington) 1798. 

No. 51. A Wedder of Mr. Culley's Breed. — See page 66, History of 
Quadrupeds. Bewick gives a long account ex relatione Mr. Culley of the 
sheep (just shorn) from which the drawing for this woodcut was made. It 
was fed at Fenton in Northumberland, and killed at Alnwick in 1787, and 
was of magnificent size. In both woodcuts the Cheviot Hills, which overlook 
Fenton, are introduced ; but in this one a farmhouse and trees are added, and 
improve the effect. 



78 BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



No. 52. Vignettp:. — A butcher and his dogs chasing a black-faced sheep. 
A very spirited design. 

No. ^i. The Tartarian, or Fat-rumped Sheep. (Hab., Tartary.) — 
This woodcut is a little smaller, but quite as well drawn as that at page 71, 
History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 54. A Sheep of the Leicestershire Improved Breed. — This 
differs slightly in the background from that at page 63, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 55. Vignette. — A ruined castle. 

No. 56. The Many-horned Sheep. (Hab., Iceland and Muscovy.) — Is 
smaller, and taken the reverse way to that at page 72, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 57. The Goat ok Angora. (Hab., Mountains of Pontus.) — See page 
86, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 58. The Syrian Goat. — See page 88, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 59. The Wallachian Sheep. (Ovis Strepsiceros. — Lin. La Chevre 
de Crete. — Buff.) — Is smaller, and very inferior to that at page 73, History of 
Quadrupeds. A small one in the background is omitted from this cut. 

No. 60. Tees-water Old or Unimpro\'ed Breed. — See page 60, History 
of Quadrupeds. Taken the opposite way. Bewick sa3-s the drawing was made 
from a ram kept to show the difference between its uncouth appearance and 
the improved appearance of the cultivated breed. The background in this is 
very good. 

No. 61. The Dunkey, or Dwarf Sheep. — A variety of the sheep which 
has such a peculiar underjaw, nose, forehead, and ruff, that Bewick says it 
appears a deformity. This is taken looking the same way as at page 70, 
History of Quadrupeds, but the little man and flock of sheep are introduced 
into the background. 

No. 62. The Peccary, or Mexican Hog. {Sus Tajacu. — Lin. Hab., 
the tropical parts of South America). 

No. 63. The Babiroussa. (Sus Bahyroussa. — Lin. Le Babiroussa. — 
Buff. Hab., East Indian Islands.) — This woodcut is a perfect transcript of that 
at page 172, History of Quadrupeds, and the touch is much the same, and very 
good. 

No. 64. The African Wild Boar, or Wood Swine. {Sus yEt/iiopicus. 
— Lin. Sanglier dii Cap Verd. — Buff.) — Same design, but taken the reverse 
way to that at page 167, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 65. The Common Boar. — {Sus Scrofa. — Lin. Lc Coc/ion. — Buff. 
Domestic.) — A very fine woodcut. The boar is the same as at page 162, 
History of Quadrupeds, but faces the opposite way, and the background is 
different, the little figure of a woman pouring food over the palings into a 
trough being a new feature. When the backgrounds are thus varied we may 
safely conjecture Thos. Bewick himself has had some hand in it. 

No. 66. Sow of the Improved Breed. — Is extremely well cut, and very 
like that at page 164, History of Quadrupeds, which, Bewick tells us, was 
taken from one in the possession of Arthur Mowbray, Esq., of Sherburn, 
County of Durham. It is looking, however, the opposite way. 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



79 



No. 67. Hog (the Chinese kind). — Similar to the woodcut at page 166, 
History of Quadi-iipeds, but taken the reverse way. Exactly the same design, 
but on a much smaller scale, is used by Bewick as a tailpiece to the poem of 
"Auld Reekie," Robert Ferguson's Poems, Vol. II., page iq6, published by 
Davidson, of Alnwick, in 18 14. See also Bewick's Cabinet of Natural History, 
page 1 1 . 

No. 68. The Buffalo. {Bos Bubalus.—Llm. Le Buffle.—^n?i. Hab., 
Africa and India, and has been domesticated in Italy.) — -The head is well 
drawn, but the animal stands more stiffly than that at page 47, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 69. The Elephant. {Elephas Maximus. — Lin. H Elephant. — Buff. 
Hab., Asia and Africa.) — See page 186, History of Quadrupeds. The procession 
of elephants in the background is a new feature. 

No. 70. The Rhinoceros. {Rhinoceros Cnicornis.— Lin. Rhinoceros. — 
Buff. Hab., tropical regions of Asia and Africa.) — Closely follows that at page 
175, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 71. The Lion. {Felis Leo. — Lin. Le Lion. — Buff. Hab., Africa 
and tropical Asia.) —This woodcut is much smaller than that at page 199, 
History of Quadrupeds, and is looking the opposite way. The position of the 
tail is different. Bewick says he made his first drawing of the lion from one 
exhibited in Newcastle in 1788. 

No. 72. The Tiger. {Felis Tigris. — Lin. Le Tigre. — Buff. Hab., Asia.) 
— This is one of the woodcuts which lead me to believe that the Bewicks were 
preparing another set of blocks for a new issue, for at page 206, History of 
Quadrupeds, the tiger appears without any background, whereas in this wood- 
cut he has a background of palms, a fir tree, and another tiger walking in the 
distance. His tail hangs on the other side, and he faces the reverse way. 

No. 73. The Two-horned Rhinoceros. {Rhinoceros Bicornis. — Lin.) — 
See page 179, History of Quadrupeds. The design is the same (reversed) but 
the touch is much coarser. 

No. 74. The Leopard. {Le Leopard. — Buff.) — This woodcut is quite as 
good in attitude, expression, and execution as the leopard at page 214, History 
of Quadrupeds. The background is an additional feature. 

No. 75. The Panther. {Felis Pardus. — Lin. La Panthere. — Buff. 
Hab., North-Western Africa.) — This beautiful woodcut closely resembles that 
at page 212, History of Quadrupeds, but is placed the opposite way. 

No. 76. The Caracal, or Cat with Black Ears. {Le Caracal. — Buff. 
Hab., India, Persia, or Barbary.) — Reversed from page 238, History of Quad- 
rupeds. It seems by the same hand as the Couguar. 

No. 77. The Ounce. {HOncc. — Buff. Hab., Asia.) — Seepage 216, //w/ort' 
of Quadrupeds. 

No. 78. The Jaguar. {Felis Onca. — Lin. Le Jaguar. — Buff. Hab., 
South America.) — See page 217, History of Quadrupeds. Reversed, and all 
the background introduced. 



8o 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



No. 79. The Margay. {Lc Margay. — Buff. Hab., South America and 
Cape of Good Hope.) — This nice httle cut is much the same as that at page 
224, History of Quadrupeds, but is reversed. 

No. 80. The Serv.^vl. (Lc Serval. — Buff. Hab., India, Malabar.) — This 
woodcut is beautiful in the drawing, and the expression and attitude is most 
lifelike. Quite equal to that at page 226, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 81. The Wild Cat. {Fclis Catus. — Lin. Lc Chat sauvagc. — Buff. 
Hab., England, and freely distributed throughout the world.) — This is a 
beautiful woodcut; the touch is very fine and expressive. See page 228, 
History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 82. The Cat Crossing Water. — This is a reproduction of the 
vignette at page 136, British Birds, Vol. I., but is reversed, and is evidently 
by a different hand. 

No. 83. The Black Tiger. {Lc Couguar noir. — Buff. Hab., Brazil 
and Guiana.) — See page 221, History of Quadrupeds. Reversed, and the back- 
ground introduced. The touch is much harder. 

No. 84. The Ocelot. {Fclis Pardalis.—IJm. Z' Off /o/.— Buff. Hab., 
Mexico and Brazil.) — A transcript of that at page 222, History of Quadrupeds, 
and is very lifelike. 

No. 85. Vignette. — A ruined abbey. 

No. 86. I. — The Ring-tailed Macauco. {Lemur Catta. — Lin. Le 
AIococo. — Buff. Hab., Madagascar.) 2.— The Yellow Macauco. (Hab., 
Jamaica.) — See page 445, History of Quadrupeds. These two little animals 
are looking the opposite way, and are well and carefully drawn from their pro- 
totypes ; but the touch is very different. 

No. 87. The Zibet. (Lc Zibet. — Buff. Hab., Africa and Asia.) — A good 
woodcut ; very similar to that at page 273, History of Quadrupeds, exceptirig 
that it is reversed. 

No. 88. Vignette. — A coble in full sail. 

No. 89. I. — The Tailless Macauco. (Leiiiur Tardigradus. — Lin. 
Hab., Ceylon and Bengal.) 2. — The Mongooz. {Lemur Mongooz. — Lin. 
Le Mongooz.—'^n'S.. Hab., Madagascar.)— See page 447, i^zi/o;-/ of Quadru- 
peds. The design is the same but the outlook of the animals reversed. 

No. 90. The Fossane. (La Fossane. — Buff.; or Berbe of Guinea. Hab., 
Madagascar, Cochin China, &c )— See page 264, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 91. Vignette. — A man fishing from a punt. I think an original design. 
No. 92. The Grey Squirrel. (Sciurus Cincreus. — Lin. Le Petit Gris. 
— Buff. Hab., Northern Europe and North America.)— See page 3S7, History 
of Quadrupeds. 

No. 93. The Flying Squirrel. (Sciurus Volans. — Lin. Le Poulatouche. 
—Buff. Hab., North America and Northern Europe.)— See page 394, History 
of Quadrupeds. Taken the opposite way. 

No. 94. Recollection of a Northern Castle.— The same design may 
be found at page 162, British Birds. Vol. L They are so exactly the same 
touch, that it seems impossible that they are not from the same hand. 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



8i 



No. 95. The Long-tailed Squirrel. (Hab., Ceylon and Malabar.) 
— Reversed from the same design at page 396, History of Quadrupeds^ but not 
nearly so good. 

No. q6. The Flying Opossum. (Hab., New South Wales.)— See page 439, 
History of Quadrupeds ; similar but reversed. 

No. 97. Vignette — A man under a tree. This is an exquisite, and, I 
think, original little design. 

No. 98. The Short-eared Bat. {Vcsperiilio Murinus. — Lin. Le 
Chauve Souris. — Buff. Hab., common in Great Britain and Europe.)— This 
is similar to the one at page 513, History of Quadrupeds, but not so delicately 
cut. 

No. 99. The Jerboa. {Mus Jaculus. — Lin. Le Jerbo. — Buff. Hab., 
Egypt and Asia.) — See page 397, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. loo. Vignette. 

No. loi. The Souslik. (J\Ius Citellus. — Lin. Le Souslik. — Buff. Hab., 
Austria.) — See page 407, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 102. The Mico, or Fair Monkey. (Hab., the River Amazon.) 
— Is taken looking the same way as the woodcut at page 481, History of 
Quadrupeds. This block appears to me to be very well cut, as far as it goes, 
but to be unfinished. 

No. 103. Vignette. — A woman by the sea-shore. 

No. 104. The Dormouse, or Ground Squirrel. {Sciurus Striatus. — 
Lin. Le Suisse. — Buff. Hab., North America.) — See page 389, History of 
Quadrupeds. A beautiful block. 

No. 105. Squirrel Opossum. (Hab., New South Wales.) — See page 441, 
History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 106. A Mouse. — Not like any woodcut in Bewick's Quadrupeds. 
Possibly an original little design by Thomas Bewick. 

No. 107. The Muscovy Musk-Rat. {Castor Moschatus. — Lin. Dcesman. 
— Buff. Hab., Lapland and Russia.) — A close copy of that at page 419, History 
of Quadrupeds. 

No. 108. The Short -tailed Field-Mouse. — Very like that at page 426, 
History of Quadrupeds, but the touch of this is not at all like Thomas Bewick's, 
whereas, No. iiS of this series looks much more like his handiwork ; both are 
given for the sake of comparison. 

No. loq. The Mole. {Talpa Europcus. — Lin. La Taupe. — Buff.) — The 
same design as at page 430, History of Quadrupeds. This mole is lying the 
opposite way. The same also, but smaller, is at page 30, Davisoii^s Natural 
History, illustrated by Bewick ; and the Compendium of Zoology. 

No. 1 10. The Long-tailed Field-Mouse. {Mus Sylvaticus. — Lin. Le 
Mulot. — Buff.) — This is a most beautiful little woodcut. The eye and tail life- 
like, the fur soft, the background elaborate; more so than that at page 425, 
History of Quadrupeds, evidently from a master hand. 

No. III. The Monax. {Mus Monax. — Lin. Glis Marmota. — Buff. Hab., 
North America.) — Reversed from page 402, History of Quadrupeds. 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



No. 112. The Lesser Dormouse. {Mus Avellanarius. — Lin. Le Mtts- 
cardin. — Buff.) — Here are two versions of the same design which have been 
constantly reproduced. See the opposite page, also page 393, History of 
Quadrupeds; page 35, Davison^ s Natural History of British Quadriipcds, 
Alnwick, )8oq, by Bewick; and page 70, Compendium of .^oolog-y, London, 
181 8. Numberless instances might be given, besides those I have noted, of 
identity of design with the two last works I have mentioned. 

No. 113. The Shrew Mouse. {Sorex Araficus. — Lin. La Mnsaraigne. 
— Buff. Hab., common in England.) — This is a beautifully executed little 
woodcut. The same design, and looking the same way as the little shrew 
mouse at page 427, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 114. The Dwarf Mouse. (Hab., Cape of Good Hope.) — A beautiful 
little drawing. Reversed from that at page 429. 

No. 115. Vignette. — A sportsman and dog. I think an original design. 

No. 116. Lesser Dormouse. — See Note 112. 

No. 117. The Mouse. {Mus MuscuIus. — Lin. Le Souris. — Buff. Hab., 
common everywhere.) — A very good woodcut. See page 424, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 118. The Short-tailed Field-Mouse. (Hab., common in England.) 
— This is a beautiful little woodcut. See Note 108. 

No. 119. Vignette. — A fisher with his hat in his hand. An original design, 
I think, and a very good block indeed. 

No. 120. The Foumart. (Rlustcla Putorius. — Lin. Le Putois. — Buff. 
Hab., England.) — The same design as at page 252, History of Quadrupeds, but 
reversed. Bewick says, one severe winter a foumart was traced to its hole, and 
eleven fine eels were discovered to be its booty. Hence, the introduction of 
snow and the eel into this picture. 

No. 121. The Stoat. (Alustela Erminea. — Lin. Le Roselet. — Buff. 
Hab., Great Britain and Northern Europe generally.) — This woodcut is taken 
the opposite way to that at page 246, History of Quadrupeds. The design is 
identical, but the e.xecution not quite so fine. 

No. 122. The Polecat and the Cock. — Like the tailpiece to the fable 
of the " Fox and the Grapes " {Select Fables, page 76), but reversed. 

No. 123. The Sable. {Mustela Zibellina. — Lin. La Zibeline. — BufiF. 
Hab., Siberia and Kamschatka.) — The design is precisely the same as at page 
258, History of Quadrupeds ; and the little animal is well finished, but the 
rock on whicli it stands is not fully filled in. 

No. 124. The Pine-Weasel, or Yellow-breasted ]\L\rtin. (La Marte. 
— Buff. Hab., Northern Europe, Asia, and America.) — The same design as at 
page 255, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 125. The Ichneumon. (Viverra Ichneumon. — Lin. La Mangouste. 
^BufT. Hab., domesticated in Egypt, where it destroys vermin, serpents, 
crocodiles' eggs, &c.) — This beautiful woodcut is the same design, taken looking 
the opposite way, as at page 261, History of Quadrupeds. 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



83 



No. 126. The Marmot. {Mtis Marmota. — Lin. La Marmottc. — Buff. 
Hab., Higher Alps, Poland, Tartary.)— See page 399, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 127. The Kanguroo-Rat. (Hab., New South Wales.) — Similar in 
design to that at page 444, History of Quadrupeds. Evidently by a beginner ; 
and is looking the opposite way. 

No. 128. This exquisite little Vignette, inscribed "Aqua Vitse" on the 
pedestal, is, as nearly as it could possibly be cut, a duplicate of that below the 
"Brown Tern," in British Birds, Vol. II., page 216. It seems to be from the 
hand of Thomas Bewick. Mr. Matthew Mackey, of Newcastle, intends, after 
this book is published, to utilize this block as a book-plate for insertion in his 
beautiful collection of Bewick Editions. 

No. i2q. The Spotted Caw. {Mus Paca. — Lin. Lc Paca. — Buff. 
Hab., South America.) — A very indifferent block. See page 379, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 130. The Kanguroo. (Hab., New South Wales.) — See page 442, 
History of Quadrupeds \ Ed. 1824. This one is taken the reverse way, and 
the treatment of the background of trees is different. Though finely drawn, 
this block seems to me to be not quite finished. 

No. 131. ViG.NETTE. — A beautiful, and, I think, original little design of 
a pump. 

No. 132. The T.\iLLESS Marmot. — See page 408, //wi'orv of Quadrupeds. 

No. 133. The Lapland Marmot. {Mus Lemmus. — Lin. Le Leming. — 
Buff. Hab., Northern Europe and Asia.) — This marmot is looking the same 
way as that at page 409, History of Quadrupeds, but it is less finished and not 
so soft in the fur. 

No. 134. The Angler.— This beautiful transcript of the vignette at the 
end of the "Redshank," Vol. II., British Birds, page 77, is looking the opposite 
way, but otherwise follows that design very closely. The attitude of the old 
fisher, as he attentively regards the hook he is baiting, is very e.xpressive. 
This block has been used to illustrate the order-form of the prospectus of this 
work. 

No. 135. The Beaver. {Castor Fiber. — Lin. Lc Castor, ou Le Bievre. 
— Buff. Hab., Northern Europe, Asia, and America.) — See page 411, History 
of Quadrupeds. 

No. 136. The Musquash, Musk Beaver, or Little Beaver. (Hab., 
North America.) — See page 416, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 137. The Inscribed Stone Vignette may be found as the tailpiece 
to the " Shepherd's Boy and the Wolf," at page 62 of yEsop's Fables, but this 
woodcut is rather larger, and taken the reverse way. Such stones (without 
the caustic inscription, however,) of the "Whin Sill," may often be seen in the 
North of England. How such a stone, of many tons weight, can have been 
transported, often a hundred miles and more from its native home, and be 
found quietly reposing in the corner of a green field in level country, has 
always been a puzzle to the rustic mind, and led to strange superstitions and 
quaint stories. For instance, that it was a fairy stone, and that on St. John's 
Eve, every year, exactly as the clock strikes twelve, it rises up and walks slowly 



84 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



three times round the field before returning to its resting place for another 
year. The geologist soh'es the problem for us, and says they have been frozen, 
in the far off Glacial period, to the bottoms of icebergs, and as these great 
monsters floated slowly southward to the Southern Seas, the masses of rock 
they carried with them became detached and dropped on the plains they 
passed over. 

No. 13S. The Suricate, or Four-toed Weasel. — See page 274, History 
of Quadrupeds. 

No. 139. A Bear (from Bengal). — This bear is looking the opposite way, 
but is otherwise a reproduction of that at page 293, History of Quadrupeds., 
which, Bewick tells us, had escaped the observation of naturalists, and remained 
unnamed and unclassed to his day. 

No. 140. Vignette. — An original and beautiful Bewickian design. I 
think it must have been cut for a book-plate. 

No. 141. The Sand Bear. — A very beautiful block, and much improved 
to that at page 284, History of Quadrupeds, by the rock and surroundings. 

No. 142. The Brown Bear. {Ursus cauda abrupta. — Lin. HOurs. 
— Buff. Hab., Northern Europe and America.) — This v/oodcut is different in 
the background, and the bear is looking the opposite way to that at page 288, 
History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 743. The Strolling Players.— rThis vignette is the same design 
(but reversed) as that at page 292, History of Quadrupeds, at the end of the 
account of the brown bear. Note the gibbet in the distance. 

No. 144. The Lynx. {Felis Lynx. — Lin. Le Lynx, ou Loup Cervier. 
— Buff. Hab., Northern Europe and America.) — See page 235, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 145. The Striped Hyena. (Canis Hycena. — Lin. HHywnc. — 
Buff. Hab., Asia and Asia Minor.) — See page 298, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 146. Vignette. — A shrimper on the sea-shore. An original design, 
I think. 

No. 147. The Couguar. {Felis Concolor. — Lin. Lc Couguar. — Buff. 
Hab., North and South America.) — See page 219, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 148. The Spotted Hyena. (Hab., Cape of Good Hope.) — See page 
301, History of Quadrupeds. Some Hottentots are left out in the distance. 

No. 149. Vignette. — A desolate scene on the sea-coast. A broken boat 
in the foreground. 

No. 150. The Jackal. {Canis Aureus. — Lin. Lc Chacal. — Buff.) — 
This animal is lifelike, and the hills in the background are added. See page 
320, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 151. The Otter. {Mustcla Lutra. — Lin. Lc Loutre.—'Q\x'&. Hab., 
Britain.) — The design in the background of this woodcut is somewhat altered 
from that at page 490, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 152. Vignette. — A wreath and arrows. 

No. 153. The Wole. {Canis Lupus. — Lin. Lc Loup. — Buff Hab., 
Europe and America.) — See page 313, History of Quadrupeds. Small, but 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



looking the same way. The canoe, hut, and palm trees are added. Bewick 
had great difficulty in satisfying himself with a wolf design, as he complains he 
read such different accounts of the animal. 

No. 154. The Wolf. (Cam's Lupus. — Lin. Lc Loup. — Buff. The New 
South Wales variety.) — This animal is looking the opposite way to that at page 
319, History of Quadrupeds. It is very lifelike, and the background is most 
beautifully cut. 

No. 155. This is a good specimen of the Italian ornaments used some- 
times by Bewick, and alluded to in the Treatise on Wood Engravings 
page 571 :— 

"In the First Edition of the History of Quadrupeds the characteristic tailpieces are compara- 
tively few ; and several of those which are merely ornamental, displaying neither imagination nor 
feeling, are copies of cuts which are frequent in books printed at Leipsic, between 1770 and 
1780, and which were probabl}' engraved by Ungher, a German wood-engraver of that period. 
Examples of such tasteless trifles are to be found at pages 9, 12, iS, 65 no, 140, 201, 223, and 
401. Ornaments of the same character occur in Heineken's Idee Generate d'uiie Collection 
Complette d' Estavipes, Leipsic and \'ienna, 1771. Bewick was unquestionabi)- better acquainted 
with the history and progress of wood-engraving than those who talk about the ' long-lost art ' 
were aware of. The first of the two following cuts is ■^facsimile of a tailpiece which occurs in an 
edition, Der Weiss Kunig, printed at Vienna, 1775, and which Bewick has copied at page 144 of 
the first edition of the Quadrupeds, 1790. The second from one of the cuts illustrative of Ovid's 
Metamorplwses, 1569, designed by \'irgil Soils, is copied in a tailpiece in the first volume of 
Bewick's Birds, page 330, edition 1797." 

No. 156. The Arctic Fox. (Cam's Lapogus.— 1.1X1. Isatis. — Buff. Hab., 
Arctic Regions.) — This animal differs very slightly from that at page 311, 
History of Quadrupeds. The fur, especially in the tail, is perhaps more feathery 
in this woodcut, which is a very good one ; and the shadows by the ears, the 
lower ja\v, and beneath the body between the hind legs are better defined than 
in the old one. 

No. 157. The Greyhound Fox. (CanisVidpes. — Lin. Le Renard. — Buff, 
Hab., Mountains of England and Scotland.) — This woodcut was chosen, from 
the brilliancy of its light and shade, to adorn the prospectus for this volume. 
Foxes, and all English wild animals were old Bewick's delight, and he excelled 
himself when depicting them, always giving something characteristic of their 
habits. The fur on this fox is as delicate, and the foliage of the bushes as 
graceful as in that at page 307, History of Quadrupeds, and, taken altogether, 
worthy of any new edition. The attitude of the fox, and the main outline of 
the design is the same, and it is looking the same way. 

No. 158. Vignette. — A recollection, possibly, it cannot be called a portrait, 
of the Ruins at Holy Island. I think an original design. 

No. 159. The Cur Fox. — The same design as at page 308, History of 
Quadrupeds. This block was carefully wrapped up and labelled, and was cut, 
I believe, by Thomas Bewick himself. It is a remarkably fine woodcut, and the 
Treatise on Wood Engraving, speaking of the Quadrupeds, says that perhaps 
this is the very best design in the whole book. See also Mr. Thomson's 
criticisms quoted in this volume when treating of the History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 160. The idea is the same as at page 312, of the History of Quadru- 
peds, but differently treated. Here the river, mill, and water-wheel are intro- 



86 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



duced, and the fox is running into the river instead of under the rock. The 
word "speed " too, is written beneath a tiny waterfall. It is a remarkably fine 
block. 

No. ibi. Vignette. — A recollection, I think, of Finchale Abbey, County 
of Durham. 

No. ib2. The Bull Dog. — In this very beautiful woodcut the dog is from 
the same design as at page 334, History of Quadniprds, but is even more finely 
cut, though the background introduced (an entirely new one) is hardly so 
appropriate. This block was carefully wrapped up and labelled, as if deemed a 
great treasure. 

No. 163. The Fox-hound. (Hab., England.) — This is a brilliant woodcut, 
and differs in almost every detail from that at page 348, History of Quad- 
rupeds. I think few will have any hesitation in thinking that it is an entirely 
new block, from the master hand of old Thomas Bewick himself, in his later 
manner, which now for the first time sees the light. Dogs and fo.Kes, and the 
English animals he knew, were his delight, and this is one that points unmis- 
takably, I think, to the preparation for some enterprising publisher of a new 
set of blocks for some projected work on natural history. Davison of Alnwick 
had found it answer, why not some south-country bookseller ? The old man 
in such a case would doubtless keep those subjects he took a pleasure in for 
himself (getting, alas, but few of them done), leaving probably the foreign 
animals, for which he cared less, to the pupils to reproduce from the old designs 
(many of them somewhat stiff and conventional, and drawn from pictures or 
stuffed specimens). These they have accomplished with more or less success, 
here and there improving on the old designs, but seldom equalling the old 
blocks as far as the touch and cutting goes. A few of their blocks I have 
ventured to suppress, and many I have merely given as specimens of the 
" school " and records of the worksliop, the kind of aftermath which I have 
described as Bewick Gleanings. 

No. 164. Vignette. — An incident during a fo.x hunt in the County of 
Durham. This cut has a peculiar interest, being from the hand of Thomas 
Bewick himself, in his old age. It exhibits all his old power of design, and 
close observation of passing incident ; and was one he prepared as a tailpiece 
for the History of Fishes, but being weak and confused in the execution 
(characteristics too painfully evident in many of the last woodcuts given in the 
Memoir), it was rejected from that volume by the printer, who wrote on the 
back — " We cannot work it up." It is given here, an authentic specimen of 
the old man's last handiwork, and a sad and interesting remembrance of his 
failing powers. Air. Andrew Reid has taken every pains to render it full justice. 

No. 165. The Spanish Pointer. {Cam's Aviai/aris. — Lin.) — This is a 
very fine block and a favourite subject of the master. See page 355, History of 
Quadrupeds. In this one the background is altered, hills, a stone wall, and 
gate are introduced; and the dog is looking the opposite way. But in both 
Bewick has copied the design of the dog from WooUett's celebrated engraving, 
a print of which was in his possession, and the editor saw it sold in rather a 
dilapidated condition at the first Bewick sale. Bewick was very fond of 
Woollett, and several of his prints were in Bewick's possession. He also adapted 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



«7 



the same dog as a tailpiece at page 3 1 8, British Birds, Volume I. Mr. Thomson 
says — "This is a very lovely print, and quite worthy of the highest praise"; 
and Mr. Austin Dobson remarks — "Our special favourites in the book are the 
Spanish Pointer and the staid Old English Hound." 

No. 166. The English Setter. — This block seems to be hardlv finished. 
The dog is running the opposite way to that at page 356, History of Quadru- 
peds. The background is entirely different. The river and corn-field, and the 
reapers with their sickles, are a new introduction. 

No. 167. Vignette. — A dog coursing. I think this is an original design. 

No. 168. The Shepherd's Dog. [Canis domcsticns. — Lin. Le Chicn 
de Bcr_s;cr. — RutT.) — This block does not show the same masterly touch so 
many of the other dogs do amongst these blocks. The design is the same 
(reversed) as at page 327, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 169. The Lurcher.— See page 343, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 170. The L.-\rge Rough W.\thr Dog. {Canis Aviarius Aquaticus. 
— Lin. Lc Grand Barbet. — Buff.) — Bewick tells us it is web-footed, and 
swims with such ease it is valuable for duck-shooting, recovering things lost 
overboard at sea, etc. This is a beautiful block. See page 360, Htstory of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 171. The Cuk Dog. — See page 320, History of Quadrupeds. Reversed, 
and the background not so good. 

No. 172. The Dog (the Springer or Cocker). — The trees above the rock 
are a little fuller than that at page 363, History of Qiuidrupeds, but the cutting 
is coarser. 

No. 173. The S.m-all \Vater-Sp.\mel. — Reversed from page 362, History 
of Qiuidrupeds. The bend in the river, rocks, and bridge, introduced in this, 
are not found there. It is a very fine block. 

No. 174. The Turnspit. — Reversed from page 365, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 175. The B.\n-Dog. — The design of this beautiful woodcut is the same, 
but the watchful looking dog stands the opposite way to that at page 338, 
History of Quadrupeds, where we find a woodcut that in some respects seems 
to exceed in beauty the rest of that volume. I cannot help thinking it is a 
recollection of the old vicarage and church tower of Ovingham, where the elder 
Bewicks resorted every day to school, to whom the vicarage field must have 
been as familiar as their own home. 

No. 176. The Dog .and his Sh.xdow. — No tailpiece like this can be found 
in either the British Birds, Quadrupeds, Select Fables, or Hisop's Fables. It 
is probably the original design from the hand of one of the Bewicks, and forms 
an illustration of the way in which they utilised an idea for different purposes, 
as, although entirely different, the notion of dropping the substance for a 
shadow is the same in the fable of " The Dog and the Shadow " in ^Esop^s 
Fables, page 117, and Select F'ablcs, page 21, but they are very differently 
treated. In both the fables the dog is crossing a stream by a plank, and the 
shadow falls in deep water. In this woodcut the sheep are huddling together 



88 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



beneath the wattled fence to shelter from the cold, snow lies upon the ground, 
ami the dog sees his shadow as he steps gingerly on the ice. We may observe 
this habit of adapting one design or idea to different purposes very frequently 
scattered throughout Bewick's works. For instance, one of the dogs hunting 
in the little tailpiece to the Ringdove, at page 31S, British Birds, Vol. I., is a 
reproduction, on a different scale, of the Spanish Pointer in the History of 
Qucidnipcds, and both are adaptations of Woollett's design in his celebrated 
copperplate engraving of the same animal. 

No. 177. Dog Species (the Comforter). — See page 364, History of Quad- 
rupeds, edition 1824. 

No. 178. The Dalmatian, or Coach Dog. {Le Braqiie dc Bengal. — 
Buff) — This is a very beautiful block indeed, and bears the stamp of a master 
hand. The background design is very much altered, and the dog is standing 
the opposite way to that at page 339, History of Quadrupeds. The same 
design, equally good, but on a small scale, is reproduced on the original cover 
to Tom Thumb's Playbook, published by Davison of Alnwick, with illustra- 
tions by Bewick. 

No. 179. Vignette. — A boy teaching a dog to beg. I think an original 
design. 

No. 180. The Old English Hound. {Canis Sagax. — Lin. Le Chien 
courant. — Buff.) — Reversed. Page 351, History of Quadrupeds. This block 
appears unfinished. 

No. 181. The H.\rrier. {Le Braque. — Buff.) — This woodcut is entirely 
different, excepting the dog, to that of the Harrier at page 347, History of 
Quadrupeds. There, dogs running, and men on horse and foot are seen 
crossing a field in the background. Here a wooded hill, with country house, 
bridge, and river are introduced, and the dog, looking the other way, stands on 
a grassy knoll in the foreground. Mr. Thomson says, " The Harrier which 
follows this is one of the best of the dogs ; the engraving is refined, the form 
well-nigh perfect, and it stands out like marble from the surrounding scene.'' 

No. 182. Vignette. — A beautiful and, I think, original study of an old 
man taking a stroll. 

No. 183. The Greenland Dog. {Lc Chieu dc Sibirie. — Buff.) — Reversed 
from page 331, History of Quadrupeds. Bewick tells us that this kind of dog 
is of a savage disposition. 

No. 184. Thp: Large Water-Spaniel. — This beautiful woodcut, in which 
the execution of the dog is exceedingly fine, also differs in its background from 
that at page 361, History of Quadrupeds, as do many of the others. Bewick 
tells us the drawing was made from a very fine dog in the possession of John 
Erasmus Blackett, Esq., of Newcastle. 

No. 185. The Shepherd and his Dog. — Not only does the design of this 
woodcut, biit the execution, seem line for line the same as that at page 182, 
British Birds. Vol. L, beneath the Snow Bunting, and it seems impossible 
almost that they are not from the same block. As the tailpieces to the Birds 
were varied in different editions, this may have been the identical block used. 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



.Sq 



No. i86. The Pig-tailed Baboon. (Siinia Ncmcstrina. — Lin. Le 
Maimo7i. — Buff.) — See page 462, History of Quadnipeds. 

No. 187. The Oran-Outang, or Wild Man of the Woods. (Simia 
Satyrus. — Lin. Le Pongo. — Buff. Hab., Africa, Madagascar, Borneo.) — The 
design at page 452, History of Quadrupeds, is followed, but the hideous animal 
is sitting the opposite way. 

No. 188. A beautiful little original design of a river waterfall. 

No. 189. The Striated Monkey. {Simin lacchns. — Lin. HOiiistiti — 
Buff. Hab., Brazil.) — See page 478, History of Quadrupeds, edition 1824. 

No. iqo. The Ribbed-Nose Baboon. {Simia Maimon. — Lin. Le 
Mandrill. — Buff. Hab., Africa.) — See page 459, History of Quadrupeds, 
edition 1824. This block seems unfinished. 

No. 191. Vignette. — A labourer tramping home. See page 1^5, British 
Birds, Vol. L, edition 1809. As the vignettes vary in the different Vditions of 
the Birds, this md.y perhaps have been the block used there. 

No. 192. The Varied Monkey, or Mona. (La Mone. — Buff. Hab,, 
Barbary, Northern Africa, Arabia, and Persia.) — See page 471, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 193. The Long-Armed Ape. {Lc Grand Gibbon. — Buff. Hab., East 
Indian Islands.) — See page 455, History of Quadrupeds. This is a fine block. 

No. 194. Vignette. — Peacocks. I think an original design. 

No. 195. The Barbary Ape. [Simia Inuiis. — Lin. Le Magot. — Buff. 
Hab., the whole of Africa.) — See page 456, History of Quadrupeds. 

No. 196. The Baboon. {Simia Sphynx. — Lin. Hab., Africa.)— Bewick 
speaks of the Baboon as "hideous and disgusting." Page 457, History of 
Quadrupeds. 

No. 197. A Peel Tower.— This thoroughly characteristic Northumbrian 
sketch may be found at page 165, British Birds, Vol. I., at the end of the 
notice of the Green Grosbeak. Nothing but the closest comparison by a 
practised eye can detect the smallest indication of difference between the wood- 
cuts ; but those slight indications are there, if looked for, to prove that they 
are not from the same blocks, though probably from the same hand. 

No. [98. Vignette. — A horse fastened to a gate. The Editor has not 
bt-en able to trace this design in any of Bewick's works. The expressive 
attitude of the poor animal standing patiently in the driving rain, with his tail 
tucked in, and his feet all together, is exceedingly good. The sign hanging 
out shows that it is an inn, where his neglectful master is refreshing himself. 
It is a truly Bewickian scene, illustrative of the pathetic vein touched upon 
by Mr. Stephens in his notes on the Panting Stag, giren under the woodcut 
from that block in the " Life of Thomas Bewick " in this volume. The dead 
horse (No. 199), the broken boat (No. 146), and the dog tearing a dead sheep 
in the presence of its lamb (No. 203), are all intensely pathetic, and are pur- 
posely placed near each other for comparison. 



qo 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



No. 199. The Dead Horse. — This design is reversed from one in The 
History and Delineation of ilie Horse in all his varieties, etc., by John 
Laurence, with illustrations by Bewick (''many beautiful vignettes," Hugo 
says), published in London, in 1809. The cutting of this block I am inclined 
to attribute to Charlton Nesbit, the touch so closely resembles that of the 
final vignette in Somerville's Chase, which was executed by him ; the rest in 
that volume were cut by Thomas Bewick himself. 

No. 200. \'iGNETTE. — Hunting a mad dog. The action of the dog, 
slouching along, with the saliva dropping from his open jaws, is admirable, as 
is also the general conception of the design, with the men running behind, and 
the old woman appearing right in the way ; but the execution is both weak 
and confused. 

No. 201. A Hen and her Chickens in a Farmyard. — This block is 
very illustrative of Bewick's earliest style, and very like much of the work 
done during his apprenticeship. 

No. 202. A Ship ready for Launching. — A smaller design something 
like this forms the tailpiece to the fable of the " Viper and the File" {Select 
Fables, page 13), but in this one the tree, with the mastiff dog and his kennel, 
are introduced. The house, too, in this one is in much better perspective ; it 
is very faulty in the Fables. 

No. 203. A Dog tearing a dead Sheep in the presence op- its Lamb. 
— See History of Quadrupeds for the same design. 

No. 204. Interior of a Blacksmith's Shop. — This is a most exquisitely 
finished design, every detail is carefully worked up, and the block yields a 
brilliant impression. The horse standing so patiently, the attitude of the 
blacksmith, and every tool and instrument is most characteristic. The design 
seems to be quite original, though in the fable of the "Viper and the File" 
(^sop^s Fables, page 243) Bewick has made a study of the interior of a smith's 
shop. 

No. 205. Exterior of a Blacksmith's Shop. — This magnificent block 
appears to aflford us a new and unpublished design of a very interesting char- 
acter. The manner in which the Bewicks individualized all the animals they 
drew is well exemplified here. The knowing old horse looks sagaciously round 
as the blacksmith examines his hoof at the instigation of his master, and the 
respective attitudes of the dog and horse show clearly what perfect friendship 
subsisted between them. 

No. 206. The Hunt. — A large and beautiful woodcut. The scene is 
picturesque and animated. The hounds are in full cry, the distant horsemen 
are pausing as they look at the ravine, while one behind is galloping hard over 
the brow of the hill. The horseman in the foreground, who, hat in hand, is 
leaping the five-barred gate, is rather stiff. We may safely venture to think 
we have here an original and unpublished design by John Bewick; for few can 
fail to recognise the strong distinctive resemblance between the style of this 
block and that by him in Somerville's Chase — of the King hunting in Windsor 
Forest. Compare the trees, the dogs, the somewhat wooden aspect of the 
horses, the carefully drawn and highly finished plants growmg on the rock 
in the foreground. As we have seen in the sketch of John Bewick's life, in 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



91 



this volume, he made the drawings for Somerville's Cliasc just before his 
death, and they are deemed his masterpiece ; but leaving the work unfinished, 
his designs were all sent to his brother Thomas to be " cut in " on the wood ; 
and this one, perhaps, was a supernumerary. The woodcut to which we have 
been comparing it occurs at page 78 of Bulnier's edition of Somerville's Chase; 
and in Mr. Thomson's work, page 156, he says : — 

" The tailpiece represents Kinjj Georg^e III. at a chase in Windsor Park ; and witnessing the 
misery of the hunted stag, he rebukes the disappointed, hungry pack in the manner mentioned in 
the poem. The King is nearest the .spectator, but he wants life, and appears somewhat inanely 
riding amidst his courtiers. The trumpeter sounds the close of the chase, while the poor wearied 
stag labours up an incline in the t'atkground. Farther off, the King's carriage awaits his majesty, 
to take him to Windsor Castle, seen in the distance. The subject of this block probably e.xplains 
why King George III. took such a deep interest in the manner in which it was executed, as men- 
tioned in the Treatise on Weed Engraving. It there says that the King thought so highly of the 
cuts that he could mt believe that they were engraved on wood, and his bookseller, Mr. George 
Nicol, obtained for his majesty a sight of the blocks, in order that he might be convinced of the 
fact by his own inspection. Perhaps, however, as Chatto s.ays, the King merely desired to see 
the blocks, as he was unacquainted with the difference between wood and copperplate engraving." 

No. 207. A Card Border. 

The following seven profile portraits in black (silhouettes) are by Thomas 
Bewick, and of very great interest to the connoisseur. In Mr. G. C. Atkinson's 
sketch of his life (published in the Natural History Society s Transactions for 
1830) he tells us : — 

" His inducement for writing a life of himself, which he did, and which he meant to inter- 
sperse with profile likenesses of his friends, was, seeing in the introduction to a novel, called 
Such is ilie World^ published by Whitaker in 1821, an erroneous statement of the circumstances 
attendant on the prefixture of his thumb mark to Gay's Fables. This determined him to give to 
the world a life of himself, which, considering his originality, force of language, and strength of 
understanding, must be a work of considerable interest, particularly when it is to contain like- 
nesses of those with whom he was intimate." 

These evidently are the portraits of his friends to which Mr. Atkinson 
alludes, and for some reason or other they were not included in the Memoirs 
of himself, published thirty-five years afterwards by his daughters. It is much 
to be regretted that we have lost the clue to his connection with some of the 
faces he drew. 

No. 208. The Rev. Christopher Gregson, Vicar of Ovingham, Bewick's 
schoolmaster. — His relationship to the Bewick family is mentioned in the 
beginning of Thomas Bewick's life, in this volume, in the notice of his mother. 
Throughout the account of his boyhood and apprenticeship many notices of 
the good old man are interspersed. At page 150 of the Memoirs we are told : — 

" My old and revered preceptor, the Rev. Christopher Gregson, died this year.* No sooner 
did the news of his extreme illness reach me than I set off, in my usual way, and w'ith all speed, 
to Ovingham. I instantly rushed into his room, and there I found his niece in close attendance 
upon him. With her, being intimately acquainted, I used no ceremony, but pulled the curtain 
aside, and then beheld my friend in his last moments. He gave me his last look, but could not 
speak. Multitudinous reflections of things that were passed away hurried on my mind, and these 
overpowered me. I knew not what to say, except, ' Farewell, for ever farewell ! ' Few men have 
passed away on Tyneside so much respected as Mr. Gregson." 

Mr. Atkinson, in his sketch, says : — 

" Such a feeling it was which pervaded the bosom of Mr. Bewick towards his early preceptor, 
and led him not only to speak of him at all times in terms of the sincerest gratitude and respect, 

* 1790. 



V- 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



but, at a later period, to engrave a profile shade of him for the illustration of a memoir of himself, 
intended to contain likenesses of his friends." 

No. 2oq. RoiiEKT PoLLAKi), the engraver, a friend of Bewick's.— In the 
Memoirs, page 71, he says : — 

"Alioulthis time I commenced a most intimate acquaintance and friendship witli Robert 
rt>llard, afterwards an enj^raver and printseller of eminence in London. He was bound apprentice 
to John Kirkup, a silversmith in Newcastle, and from his being frequently sent to our workshop 
with crests, cyphers, &c., to engrave, he took a great liking to engraving, and was indefatigable 
in his endeavours to become master of it. In furtherance of this we spent many of our evenings 
together at his father's house, which to me was a kind of home. On his master declining 
business, my young friend was engaged for a term of years to learn engraving with Isaac Taylor, 
of Holborn, London." 

When Bewick went to London he received a warm welcome from Robert 
Pollard, and through his introduction found plenty of work provided for him 
by Isaac Taylor.* Pollard and Mr. Bailey were the only friends (besides his 
partner and the printer) to whom Bewick gave a vellum copy of the " Chilling- 
ham Bull." After Robert Pollard had established himself in London, he 
issued, in 1793, the first volume of the Peerage of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Mr. Croal Thomson tells us : — 

'■ An announcement made with the publication of this book promised to issue a volume 
everj' six months, to be printed by Bulmer, who afterwards produced the Goldsmith and Parnell, 
' The Chase,' and other fine works ; but the sale of this, the first part, being ver)^ small, it was 
resolved to discontinue it. No other volume, therefore, appeared, although the preface states that 
the subjects for the second had been put into the hands of the respective artists. There are 
numerous copperplates in the volume published, but the woodcuts only are by John Bewick. That 
of classical ruins, on page 33, is signed ; a very fine cut of a ruin, with carefully drawn trees, is 
on page 105, repeated on page 136 ; the others are artistically arranged heraldic devices and 
weapons of warfare." 

No. 210. William Charnley, an eminent Newcastle bookseller, son of a 
haberdasher in Penrith. — He was apprenticed in January, 1741, at the age of 
fourteen, to a tinplate worker ; but within the month was transferred to 
Bryson, a bookseller on the Tyne Bridge. In 1748 he was admitted to the 
freedom of Newcastle, and in 1750 his master took him into partnership. This 
was dissolved in 1755, and the business continued "at the Bridge End " by 
Charnle}'. He was there in 1771, when the great flood broke down the arches 
and wrecked the shops. He then moved to a more central part of the town at 
the foot of the Groat Market. As far back as 1757, he had opened a circu- 
lating library in a commodious shop at the foot of the Flesh Market, con- 
taining 2,000 volumes. The subscription was twelve shillings a year, or three 
shillings a quarter. Joseph Barber, another noted bookseller, f had already for 
some years kept a circulating library at Amen Corner, where he had removed 
from the head of the Flesh Market, on the High Bridge. Charnley's action 
compelled him to reduce his terms to ten shillings and two shillings and six- 
pence, and to advertise his "grand original" library of 1,257 volumes as worthy 
of continued support. After W. Charnley's removal to the Groat Market, he 

* .\n eminent engravir of that day, and fatlier of Jane and Ann Taylnr, who wrote many 
hymns and songs for chi'dren, and of Isaac Taylor, a most eminent theologian and metaphysician. 

t He dealt in prints, and had also a tea warehouse. He was succeeded by the Humbles, 
who afterwards owned the Didlhim Adver/iser. 



BEWICK GLEAXIXGS. 



93 



continued there until his death in 1S03, "highly and justly respected for his 
literary and professional talents, his strict integrity, and social worth." His 
widow continued the business in the same place until 1806, and then removed 
it (to make way for Collingwood Street) to the Bigg Market. At her death, 
in 1814, her son, Mr. Emerson Charnley, became the sole proprietor of the 
busmess, and continued it until his death in 1845. He was very well known 
to all people of literary tastes in the North of England. Dibden, in his 
Northern Tour, tells us much about their intercourse. He was succeeded by 
his son, who retired in i860 in favour of Mr. William Dodd, who had managed 
the business from the death of Mr. E. Charnley in 1845. To Mr. William 
Dodd, who is still the highly respected Treasurer of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries, the Editor is indebted for much of this information. 

No. 21 1. This was classed in the Catalogue as a '' Clergyman unknown" ; 
but the Editor is inclined to think it is William Charnley again. 

No. 212. T. A. WiLi.i.\MS. 

No. 213. Thp: Rk\-. \A^illiam Turner, a Unitarian minister in Newcastle, 
who spent a long and useful life in promoting the happiness and improvement 
of others. — He was a great advocate of Sunday schools, one of the founders of 
the Antiquarian Society, the Literary and Philosophical Society, and the 
Natural History Society of Newcastle, to all of which he was a constant con- 
tributor. His society was much valued by all the cultivated men in and 
around Newcastle of that day, by whom he was much beloved. Sykes tells us 
that, in December, 1 831, to celebrate the 

" Fiftieth year of his residence in Newcastle, a very splendid entertainment was given in the 
Assembly Rooms ; Jas. Losh, Esq. in the chair, Dr. Headlam and Wm. Boyd, Esq., vice-presidents. 
Upwards of one hundred gentlemen sat down to dinner, including Archibald Reed, Esq., Mayor, 
Alderman Shadforth, Sir R. Hawks, Col. Campbell, Chas. \Vm. Bigge, John Clayton, John 
Adamson, Armorer Donkin, John Buddie, John Lambton Loraine, and Robert Ingham, Esqrs.," 
and that the "venerable gentleman, then seventy years of age, was highly complimented by the 
many excellent speeches that were made." 

This good old man lived to be still more " venerable," for Mr. William 
Dodd informs me that the " Rev. W. Turner died at Manchester, at the house 
of his daughter, Mrs. Robberts, April 24th, 1856, aged ninety-seven." 

No. 214. A. Reed. — There was a Mr. Archibald Reed so popular that he 
was six times elected Mayor of Newcastle, and also a Mr. Alex. Reed, a china 
merchant. The Rev. J. W. Townsend writes to the Editor : — 

" Dr. Clark thinks this is Archd. Reed and not the auctioneer — it is nothing like him. 
Mr. Archd. Reed was six times mayor — a clothier — his house was at Whorlton, but he was .at the 
Mansion House. Forty years an alderman and magistrate ; aldermen were then magistrates. A fine 
oil painting of him was done by his son, who became a celebrated artist. A monument in 
Jesmond Cemetery was erected by public subscription. He appointed Dr. Clark his coroner, 
who remembers him well. [Dr. Clark] collected money for his monument and composed his 
epitaph." 

But Mr. William Dodd states : — 

" Of the two A. Reeds you mention, I think it is most likely to be Alex. Reed, the china 
merchant ; he was also an auctioneer. He was a very likely person to be a friend of Bewick. He 
was never in Pilgrim Street. His place of business was for many years in Dean Street ; he was 
there in 1801 and was there in I.S24. He afterwards moved to the Royal Arcade, to the large rooms 
over the steps. He was elected a town councillor after the passing of the new Municipal Act." 



94 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



NOTES ON THE "BEWICK SALE" COPPERPLATES. 



Plate I. "Thomas Bewick, Engravkr, Newcastle." — His business card, 
before his son was taken into partnership. The style, early George III., when 
the Adams, of Adelphi fame, were exercising such a wonderful influence over 
the art and architecture of their day. Whether it were a design for engraving 
a silver tea-pot, a model for the exquisite vases which bear their name- 
rivalling those of their cotemporary, Josiah Wedgwood — the outline of a 
chimney-piece, or the plan of a mansion ; everything they touched bore witness 
to the versatility of their invention, and received the impress of style, and 
their style itself was generally pleasing, graceful, and refined ; and such are 
the characteristics of this simple card. 

Plate II. Carlisle Bank £'^ Note. — By Thomas Bewick. See the 
Autobiography. 

Plate III. Carlisle Bank Guinea Note. — By Thomas Bewick. Lent 
by iMr. M. Mackey. 

Plate IV. Berwick Bank £'^ Note. — By Thomas Bewick. See original 
correspondence in this volume with Mr. Bailey, and lithographed letter from 
Thomas Bewick, on this copperplate. Mr. Thomson says (page 173) — "The 
Berwick Bank note for one guinea, and the five pounds of the same, issued 
shortly afterwards, have some very superior engraving." 

Plate V. Back of the Preceding Berwick ^"5 Note. — The Editor has 
seen one of the notes, which had been in circulation ; now in the possession of 
Mr. Bolam, of Berwick. 

Plate VI. A Spoilt Beginning for the Preceding Note. — Very in- 
terestintr, and given here to illustrate Thomas Bewick's method of work, and 
the difficulties he had to overcome. See his letters on this subject in the 
chapter on bank notes in this volume. 

Plate VII. Berwick Bank £\ Note. — By Thomas Bewick. 

Plate VIII. Northumberland Bank ^"i Note, with a view of St. 
Nicholas', the Old Castle, and the Moot Hall, signed " Bewick." " For Sir 
Francis Blake, Bart., John Reed, Reeds and Co." Sir Francis Blake, of Twizel 
Castle, on the Tweed, in Northumberland, descended from the celebrated and 
eccentric Sir Francis Delaval, of Seaton Delaval. John Reed, of the old Border 
clan family of Reed, of Reedwater, Northumberland, formerly seated at Trough- 
end on the Reedwater, near Otterburn, and afterwards at Chipchase Castle, 
which they purchased from the Herons. Owing to the failure of the North- 
umberland Bank, Chipchase passed into other hands. The heirs of the late 
Rev. John Reed, Vicar of Newburn, are the ]iresent representatives of the old 
family. 

Plate IX. NoKTHUMHERLAM) Bank £\ XoTE. — " For John Reed, Reed 
and Co," with vignette signed " Ik'wick." All bank note plates were done 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



qt; 



by Thomas Bewick himself (until in his old age he gave them up to his son), 
and his work, while in progress, was carefully guarded from sight to prevent 
forgery. 

Plate X. Northumberland Bank £~. Note. — ''For Sir Francis Blake, 
Bart., John Reed, Reeds and Co.," with a vignette signed " Bewick.'' 

Plate XI. NoRTHUJiBERLAxn Bank £i Note. — "For John Reed, Reed 
and Co.," with vignette signed " Bewick." 

Plate XII. Northumberland Bank £20 Note. — ''For John Reed, Reeds 
and Co.," with vignette signed " Bewick." For the loan of these five plates the 
Editor is indebted to Mr. Matthew Mackev, of Newcastle, the indefatigable 
Bewick collector. 

Plate XIII. This very fine engra\-ing* is signed " T. Bewick, del. and 
sculpt." In the background is a cottage scene, with the house dog running 
barking to the rescue of the family pigs. The pigs are racing out of the way 
of a couple of setters, who, with their master, his gun in hand, are in pursuit of 
game. He has left his pony picketted to the ground, to browse, while another 
sportsman leans idly against the saddle of a fine black pony in the foreground. 
The design was intended as the frontispiece to A Short Treatise on that Useful 
Invention called the Sportsman s Friend {\?iO\).\ This invention was a peg 
driven into the ground, to which the pony is fastened, as shown in the etching. 
An unfinished bit of chain is the only indication that this interesting plate has 
never been quite completed. | 

Plate XIV. A Cheviot Ram.§ — This beautiful plate was executed by 
Thomas Bewick himself in his best days. He tells us all about it at page 182, 
Memoirs, and the Editor feels very fortunate in having secured it for this 
volume : — 

"It will readily be supposed that, where such exertions were made, and pains taken to breed 
the best kinds of all domestic animals, jealousy and envy would be e.xcited, and contentions arise 
as to which were the best, but for me to dilate upon this would only lead me out uf the way. I 
shall, however, notice an instance, as it happened to occur between m}' two friends, Mr Smith uf 
\\"oodhall, and Mr. Baile}'. The latter, in connection with his report on Cheviot sheep, had 
given a bad figfure of a ram of that breed. This was construed into a design to lessen the 
character of Mr. Smith's Cheviot sheep, on which, in .■\pril, 1798, the latter sent for me to draw 
and engrave a figure of one of his rams, by way of contrasting it with the figure Mr. Bailey had 
given. The colour Mr. Smith gave to the business was, not to find fault with Mr. Bailey's figure, 
but to show how much he (.Mr. Smith) had improved the breed since Mr. Bailey had written his 
report. 

" Whilst I was at Woodhall, I was struck with the sagacity of a dog belonging to Jlr Smith. 
The character for sagacity of the shepherd's dog was well known to me, but this instance of it 
was exemplified before by own eyes. Mr. Smith wished to have a particular ram brought out 
from amongst the flock, for the purpose of my seeing it. Before we set out, he observed to the 
shepherd, that he thought the old dog (he was grey-headed and almost blind) would do well 
enough for what he wanted with him. Before we reached the down, where the flock was feeding, 

* The original wrapper is labelled, " Shooting Pony, etched by T. Bewick." 

t By Henry Utrick Reay, Esq., of Killingworth, Northumberland, and formerly High 
Sheriff of that countv ; for whom Bewick also engraved a set of silver buttons with sporting 
subjects. They were inherited by Mr. Reay's son-in-law, .Matthew Bell, Esq., .M.P., of 
AVoolsington. 

X For Mr. W. Garrett's account of this book, see Hugo's Beu'ick Collector, page 71. 

§ Labelled, " Witham, Cheviot Ram, belonging Mr. Smith, Woodhall." 



96 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



I observed that Mr. Smith was talking^ to the dog before he ordered him off on his errand ; and 
while we were conversing on some indifferent subject, the dog brought a ram before us. Mr. 
Smith found a deal of fault with the dog, saying, did I not order you so-and-so ? And he 
scolded him for bringing him a wrong sheep, and then, after fresh directions, sent him off again 
to bring the one he wished me to see. We then returned home, and shortly after our arrival 
there, the dog brought the very ram wanted, along with a few other sheep, into the fold where I 
took a drawing of him." 

Plate XV. Labelled on the original wrapper "Doe's Head, etched by R. E. 
Bewick" (his own handwriting). 

Plate XVI. Thp: Hunt Card of Mr. Cui.ley's Beagles, signed " T. Bewick 
and Son." — Nothing can be more characteristic of Thomas Bewick's style than 
the design for this exquisite little card. At page 1S2 Memoirs, he says — 

" My intimate friend, John Bailey, Esq., of Chillingham, in conjunction with another friend 
of mine, George CuUey, Esq., of Fowberry, were the active, judicious, and sensible authors of 
many of the agricultural reports, in which they did not lose sight of the farmer. The}- wished 
to 'live and let live' between landlord and tenant." 

Speaking of this Mr. Culley, the Editor's aunt, Mrs. Kelly, of Saltford, 
Somerset, writes : — " He was a great friend of your grandfather's ; they were 
related." 

Plate XVn. This print has a peculiar interest for Newcastle antiquaries, 
being the book-plate* of the Rev. John Brand, the historian of Newcastle, by 
Ralph Beilby, Bewick's partner and former master. The idea of this design 
was afterwards adopted for a wood block by Thomas Bewick, who cut it for the 
Rev. E. H. Adamson, the learned author of the Life of Camocns, Liisitanice 
Illtistrata, and Bihliothwca Lnsitania. This block was used on the title page 
of mlny of the rare Newcastle Reprints. See note at page 306, Hugo's Bewick 
Collector. Beilby executed some copperplates for Brand's History of Neiv- 
castlc, and the interleaved copy of their cori'espondence, which belonged to 
Mr. John Fenwick, is now in the hands of the Editor; and in a letter dated 
"Bath, Feb. 3, 1786," Mr. Brand thanks R. Beilby for fifty impressions from 
this very plate. In the Treatise on Wood Engraving., page 580, speaking of 
Mr. Ralph Beilby's copper engraving, it is said — 

" Roger Thornton's monument, and the plan of Newcastle, in the Rev. John Brand's history 
of that town, were engraved by Mr. Beilby. Mr. Brand's book-plate was also engraved by him. 
It is to be found in most of the books that formerly belonged to that celebrated antiquary, who is 
well known to all collectors from the extent of his purchases at stalls, and the unique copies of 
old books which he thus occasionally obtained." 

Plate XVIII. Book-plate of Jas. C. Axdersox. — This and the two fol- 
lowing are in the very best Bewickian style. Mr. Hugo says : — 

" It was only natural that advantage should betaken of his e-xquisite powers by the professional 
and commercial men of his great town and neighbourhood — by the former for book-plates,f memo- 
rial cuts, and similar objects; by the latter for notices of exhibitions, bill heads, shop cards, bar 
bills, coal certificates, &c,, and by both for various societies and companies, the members of which 
they jointly composed." 

This Mr. James C. Anderson was of the well-known Jesmond family, now 
represented by James and Wm. Anderson, Esqs., of Newcastle. Mr. Hugo, in 
his Bcivick Collector, gave an impression from a (wood block) book-plate he 

* The original wrapper is labelled (I think in R. E. Bewick's writing) "Book-plate, etched 
b_v Ra. Beilby, Ruins, (Stc." 

t See also notes on "book-blocks," in the Ltff of Thomas Bewick in this volume. 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



97 



had, with the inscription, ''Matt: Anderson, St. Petersburg," who was another 
member of the Jesmond family. This wood block is now in the possession of 
the Rev. E. Pearson, of Cheltenham. Besides these, Bewick cut book-blocks 
for ''John Anderson, St. Petersburg," — a sportsman on horseback, afterwards 
used as a vignette in the British Birds, Vol. I., page 149, edition 1826 ; and 
for "John Anderson, jun.," — a fishing scene. All these Andersons were relations, 
and the last-named was the Sheriff of Newcastle whose name appears on the 
invitation card to the dinner in celebration of George IV. 's coronation, given 
amongst these copperplates (No. XXIX.). 

Plate XIX. Another book-plate, labelled " Bywell Bay." By R. E. Bewick. 
A single impression of this was given as a great treasure by Aliss Bewick to the 
Rev. Thos. Hugo. This and the succeeding plate (No. XX.) are in magnificent 
condition, and yield brilliant impressions, showing the plates to be fresh and 
unworn. The collectors who may be fortunate enough to insert their names 
and first use impressions from these copperplates for their libraries in the 
future, may rest assured they are almost unique in obtaining, at this late date, 
fresh and perfectly genuine " Bewick " book-plates. 

Plate XX. Another original design for a book-plate. See preceding note. 
Speaking of a similar book-plate on copper, I\Ir. Croal Thomson says : — 

" The workmanship, indeed, is very pecuhar, for the prints are not like copperplate work in 
tlie usual sense of the term. A specimen of sucli a plate, executed for J. Headhm, is given on 
the next page. The technique is bolder, freer, and less conventional, and more like careful etch- 
ing than engraving, although the happ}' phrase which has been attached to them, 'wood engraving 
on copper,' describes them best." 

Remarkable to say, since these words were written (in 1882) these copper- 
plates for book-plates were sold to the Editor in their original wrappers, and 
they are all, it will be observed, labelled "etched on copper" or "etching on 
copper," so that the Bewicks themselves deemed these copperplates "etchings" 
rather than line engravings. 

Plate XXI. Crest of the Collingwoods of Northumberland, for a 
book-plate. The design of the head and antlers is exquisitely finished, but 
probably it has been laid aside and never used, because, by mistake, the motto 
(which may have been left to an apprentice) was not reversed in the lettering 
as it should have been ! This could easily be remedied now, by erasing the 
lettering and re-engraving the motto in the proper way. 

Plate XXII. The original wrapper is labelled " By R. E. Bewick. Coat 
of arms of ■ Mills.' " 

Plate XXIII. Concert Ticket. 

Plate XXIV. Business Card.—" Walter Hall & Co." 

Plate XXV. Business Card. Blank. — On the original wrapper it is labelled 
" By Beilby." This, as well as Nos. XXIII. and XXIV. (if their lettering were 
erased) would make beautiful borders for book labels or coats of arms. 

Plate XXVI. Ball Ticket, with a beautiful design of a rustic dance ; St. 
Nicholas' steeple in the distance. Mr. Kinloch was a noted dancing master, 
from whom the Editor's aunts and uncles took lessons in former days. 



98 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



Plate XXVII. Ball Ticket (''Bewick sculpt.") for a celebrated masquerade 
dance held in Newcastle. Its glories have not even yet faded from the 
memory of the neighbourhood, and a large oil painting, with the principal 
costumes in the foreground, was exhibited a few years ago in the Exchange 
Art Gallery. There is a woodcut with the same design amongst the " Bewick 
Sale Blocks." 

Plate XXVIII. Back of the invitation card to the Mayor's dinner at the 
Coronation of George IV. " T. Bewick and Son fecit." 

Plate XXIX. Reverse of the last, labelled by the Bewicks, " Coronation 
Ticket. G. Forster, Esq., Mayor." 

Plate XXX. The original wrapper is labelled " Corporation Arms. August, 
I S3 1. Engraved by R. E. Bewick," in his own handwriting. 

Plate XXXI. An Emblematical Figure of Newcastle resting upon a 
shield bearing the arms of the town, is receiving homage from a figure repre- 
senting the arts of Music and the Stage; sea horses, signifying the seaport, are 
grouped on the other side. The original wrapper is labelled " Plate, with 
motto, 'Je n'aspire que vous plaire.' Late Mr. Harrison's, Forth." 

Plate XXXII. The New Assembly Rooms, Newcastle. — " Bewick set." 
Labelled on the original wrapper, " Misses Brodie. Assembly Rooms." 

Plate XXXIII. The Moot Hall, Old Castle, and Steeple of St. 
Nicholas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Plate XXXIV. Emblematical Fic.ure of Justice. 

Plate XXXV. The original wrapper is labelled, " Plate of Old Exchange, 
Newcastle, b)' Thomas Bewick." It shows the crow's nest on the top, and is 
believed to have been done for the Newcastle Almanack for the year 1786. 

'* In the 3'ear 17S3, a pair of rooks, after an unsuccessful attempt to establish tliemselves in 
a rookery at no great distance from the Exchange, were compelled to abandon the attempt. 
They took refuge on the spire of that building, and although constantly interrupted by other 
rooks, built their nest on the top of the vane, and brought forth their young, undisturbed by the 
noise of the populace below thtm ; the nest and its inhabitants turning about with every change 
of the wind. They returned and built their nest every year on the same place till 1793, soon 
after which the spire was taken down." — Si it. Birds, Vol. I. (the Rook.) 

Plate XXXVI. This was labelled "Mr. Redhead's Plate of Buoy, engraved 
R. E. Bewick," in the handwriting of the latter. It is a spirited view of the 
Prior's Haven at Tynemouth, where the waves used to dash with relentless 
force before the long piers were built, which have since rendered the port of 
the Tyne more safe and desirable. 

Plates XXXVII., XXXVIII., XXXIX., and XL. In the "Bewick Sale 
Catalogue" these are described, " Winterbottom's (Dr.) Travels. Four views, 
engraved by T. Bewick to illustrate this work, ivJiich ivas never published.'" 
This, however, proves to be a mistake, as the work was published about 1802, 
and was entitled. An Account of the Native Africans in the neighbourhood of 
Sierre Lcouc, to ivhich is added an Account of the Present State of JMedicine 
amongst them, by Thomas Winterbottom, M.D., Physician to the Colony, in 
two 8vo. volumes, and these ])lates were used to illustrate it. Southey, in his 



History of Brazil, speaks of it as " a very able and a very valuable work." 
Dr. Winterbottom (whose second name was Masterman) was born at Westoe, 
near South Shields, in 1765. Lord Macaulay's father was governor of the 
colony, and he and Dr. Winterbottom became ardent fellow-workers in .the 
anti- slavery cause ; they remained cordial friends until the death of the former 
in 1838. Dr. Winterbottom returned to Westoe to succeed his father in an 
extensive practice, and lived there for the remainder of a long life ; he attained 
the age of ninety-five, surviving until 1859. He was unremitting in his 
endeavours to promote the good of others, founding during his lifetime no 
less than seven different funds and institutions for the benefit of his native 
place. For these particulars I am indebted to my friend Mr. Wm. Brockie, 
of Sunderland. 

Plates XXXVII. and XXXVIII. represent scenes in domestic life amongst 
the natives of Tropical Africa. 

Plate XXXIX. contains Illustr.ations of Termites, or White Ants. — 
{Tcrmes fatalis. — Lin. T. hellicosus. — Smeathman.) From Tropical Africa. 
Fig. I. — A young winged male or female. Fig. 2. — Ditto, after losing its wings. 
Fig. 3. — Female (queen) filled with eggs. Fig. 7. — A worker magnified. Fig. 
8. — A soldier. Figs. 10 to 24. — Various species of Termites. 

Plate XL. Nests of the White Ants. — Figs, i and 2. — Termes fatalis. 
Figs. 4 and 5. — Tennes destructor. — Fab. Termes arborinn. — Smeathman. 
For this information I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Wm. Dinning, of 
Newcastle. 

Plate XLI. Froxtispieck by Ralph Beilby to Pope GanganellVs Letters. 
These letters* were first published by Lottin, in Paris, very shortly after Pope 
Clement XIV. 's death. They became very popular, and were so widely read 
that a translation was printed in Newcastle by J. Saint for W. Charnley, in 
1777, t which Beilby illustrated by this and the following plate. 

Plate XLII. Portrait of Pope Clement XFV. — By Beilby. 

Plate XLIII. Frontispiece for Angus's History of England and Scotland. 
'' By L. Clennell." So labelled on the original wrapper. 

Plate XLIV. " Frontispiece. Otway's tomb." — So labelled on the original 
wrapper. No name is attached, but the writing is the same as on the preceding 
plate. 

Plate XLV. The following remarkable series of coal certificates, peculiarly 
interesting to the North of England antiquary, begins with that for Cowpen 
Colliery, Port of Blyth, and bears the arms (Ridlej' Quartering White) of their 
owner, Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. The little vignette on which the 
shield is set, is thoroughly Bewickian. The bull coming round the corner 
(suggestive of the Ridley crest — a bull) could have been designed by no hand 
but that of old Thomas himself. 

* The Editor found them most interesting. 

t The Editor is indebted to the Very Rev. Provost Consitt, of Durham, for the loan of a 
copy of this scarce volume. 



100 



BEWICK GLEANINGS. 



Plate XLVI. Wvlam Moor Coal Certificate, with arms— within a 
beautifully engraved wreath — of the owner, C. Blackett, Esq., of Wylam Hall. 

Plate XL^'II. T. Brown, Esq., afterwards Messrs. Drewett, Brown, & Co.,' 
of Jarrow. Jarrow is on the banks of the Tyne, in the County of Durham. 
There, overlooking the Tyne, still stands the church where dwelt the great 
church historian, the Venerable Bede, more than 1,200 years ago; and 
opposite, on the other side of the river, are the remains of the mile tower, 
where, 600 years before that early date even, the Roman Emperor finished his 
great outwork of the Roman Wall. 

Plate XLVIII. Garesfield (County of Durham) Coal Certificate, with 
the arms of the owner, the iMarquis of Bute. Signed " Bewick." 

Plate XLIX. Coal Certificate of Eighton Moor, with the crest and 
monogram of William Wharton Burdon, Esq., the owner. The royalty belonged 
to Lord Ravensworth. Eighton Moor is in the County of Durham, near Ravens- 
worth Castle. 

Plate L. A Banker's Order, with a pretty little design of a woman pour- 
ing flowers from a cornucopia. 

Plate LI. Newcastle Distillery. — The original wrapper is labelled "Bill 
plate. Mr. Jabez Hood. Out of use." 

Plates LH. and LHL Two exquisite old plates, fresh as the day they were 
engraved. It is a question not easily decided, and one we must leave to the 
critics to discuss, whether these beautiful little pictures may, or may not, be 
ascribed to Thomas Bewick ; whether, for instance, they formed part of his 
early work in London — of which we have so little record — or whether he 
bought them there as specimens of the art. The foliage of the trees very 
closely resembles the style he at one time aiined at. The wrappers throw no 
light upon their history. With these two plates we close the "Bewick Sale" 
series, and bid farewell to the relics from West Street, Gateshead. 




(From the Bewick Sale.) 



INDEX. 


lOI 


INDEX.- 


-Part I. 




Abbs, George, 45. 


Bewick, John, sen., 3, 4, 31 ; Agnes, 4 ; John, 


.Ackerman's Religious Emblems^ 92, 


jun., 30, 44, 83, 86 ; R. E., 72, 87. 




yEsop's Fables, ^ I . 


Bigge, J. H., loS. 




Ainstable, 3, 27. 


Black Gate, the, 11. 




Allan, George, 44, 52. 


Blackett, Mrs., 22. 




-Amen Corner, 10. 


Bolam, John, 62. 




Anderson, A., 106. 


Book-plates, 67. 




Angus, M. 26, 67. 


Bowman, J. E., 78. 




Atkinson, G. C, 13, 61. 


Boyd, William, 60 ; E. P., 5o ; Archdeacon 




.■\udubon, J. J., 79, So. 


W., 61. 




Bacon's, P., engraving of Bewick, 74. 

Bailes, Dr., 11, 30. 

Bailey, John, 46, 49, 62, 63, 65 ; iMiss, 12, 63. 

Bailey's, E. H., bust of Bewick, 73. 

Bank Notes, engravings of, 61, 62. 

Barlow, Francis, 37 ; George, 54. 

Barnes, J. W., 86. 


Breadalbane, Earl of, 90. 
Bridgewater, Earl of, 95. 
Brooks, J. C, 99. 
Brown, John, 42 ; William, 42. 
Bryan, Michael, 52. 
Buckley, Rev. Mr., 50. 
Bulmer, William, 24, 81, 84, 85. 




Beattie's Minstrel, Clennell's cuts to, 94. 


Burn, James, 5. 




Beilby, Ralph, 9, 12, 13, 29, 53, 54; William, 

9 ; Miss, 25. 
Beilby family, 12. 


Burnett, James, 73. 

Bute, Earl of, 90. 

Buxton, Bewick's visit to, 79. 




Bell, Sir Chas., 98 ; John, 48, 49. 






Bewick, Thomas, birth of, 4 ; at school, 5 ; 


Cadger's Trot, the ; lithograph of, 77. 




bound apprentice, 10 ; his first wood en- 


Carlisle, 27. 




gravings, 13 ; end of apprenticeship, 25 ; 


Carr, Robert, loi. 




tour in Scotland, 27 ; visits London, 28 ; 


Catnach, J., 70. 




leaves London, 29 ; partnership with 


Charnley, Emerson, 38. 




Beilby, 29 ; death of his parents, 30 ; 


Chatto, W. A., i6, 48, 103, 104. 




tour in Yorkshire, &c., 31 ; expenses on 


Cherryburn, 2, 3, 4, 25, 30, 51. 




the road, 32 ; his marriage, 41 ; History 


Chillingham Bull, 45, 51 ; vellum impres- 




of Oiiadnifieds, 43 ; visits Chillingham, 


sions, 49. 




46 ; visit to Wycliffe, 52 ; British Birds, 


Chillingham Castle, 46. 




53, 54 i dissolution of partnership, 54 i 


Clennell, Luke, 93 ; death of, 96. 




engraves Bank Notes, 61, 62 ; yEsop's 


Cobbett's Register, 42. 




Fables, 71 ; removes to Gateshead, 71 ; 


Cock, the, inn ; cut for, 15. 




portraits of, 73 ; his workshop, 75 ; visit 


Consitt, Matthew, 52. 




to Edinburgh, 77 ; History of Fishes, 78 ; 


Constable, Mrs., 52. 




death of his wife, 79 ; visit to Buxton, 


Coombes, Michael, 50. 




79 ; visit to London, 81 ; death of, 82. 


Crawhall, Joseph, 14. 





I02 



INDEX. 



Croker, R. E., 6S. 
Cumberland, tour in, 27. 

Davison, Wm., 37, 70, 95. 

Death of Dentatus, Harvey's cut of, 9S. 

Decisive Charge of the Life Guards, print of, 

95- 
Derwentwater, Earl of, 7- 
Dilston Hall, 7. 

Dobson, Austin, 36, 37, 55, 57, 103. 
Dodd, William, 50. 
Dovaston, J. F., 78, 79. 
Durer, Albert, 13. 

Edinburgh, Bewick's visit to, 77. 
Elliot, Isabella, 41 ; Robert, 41. 
Elswick Hall, 55. 
Eltringham, 26. 

Falconer's SAipiurec/;, Ciennell's cuts to, 97. 
Fishes, History of, projected, 78. 
Flameng, L., engraving of Bewick, 75. 

Garret, Wm., 51. 

Gays Fables, 2 1 . 

Goldsmith and Parnell's Poems, cuts for, 85. 

Good's, T. J.| portrait of Bewick, 75. 

Goundry, John, 53 ; George, 53. 

Gow, Thomas, 51. 

Gray, Gilbert, 23 ; George, 25 ; Edwin, 50 ; 

Wm., 24, 28. 
Gregson, Rev. C, 4, 5, 9, 10, 22 ; Miss, 6 ; 

C, 10, 28 ; Philip, 28, 31. 

Hall, Edward, 52. 

Harvey, Wm., 73, 97 ; Bewick's letters to, gS, 

99 ; designs for various works, 100. 
Haydon, R. B., 98. 
Haydon Bridge, 26. 
Henderson's History of Wines, Harvey's cuts 

to, 99. 
Highland Society Diploma, 95. 
Hive of Ancient and Modern Liieratttre, 94. 



Hodgson, Thomas, Printer, 28,29; Solomon, 

43, 47, 54- 
Hodgsons of Elswick, 55. 
Hole, Henry, loi. 
Hornbooks, 15. 
Hugo, Rev. Thos., 15, 16, 21, 47,48, 51, 53, 

55, 69, 86- 
Hutchinson's History of Durham, 69. 
Hutton, Charles, 13, 41. 
Hylton Castle, 69. 
Hymers, John, 25, 28. 

Jackson, J., 47, ;8, 73, 76, 90, 96, 102 ; Treatise 

on Wood Engraving, 103. 
Johnson, Robert, 89, 90, 91 ; John, 91. 
Joly, Dr., 49, 50. 
Jupp, E., 50. 

Kay's New Preceptor, 20. 

Kettle, J. W., 50. 

Kidd, T. A., 73. 

Kirkhall, 37. 

Kirkley's, Miss, portrait of Bewick, 73. 

Knaresborough, 68. 

Knight, Charles, io2. 

Kyloe 0.x, copperplate of, 52. 

Landells, F^benezer, 102. 

Langhorne, J. Bailey, 63. 

Leadbitter, Robt., 75. 

Le Clerc, Sebastian, 37. 

Le Grand's Fablieux, cuts for, 84. 

Lee, James, 86. 

Liddell, Sir H. G., 53. 

Lilburn, Charles, 69. 

London, Bewick's arrival in, 28. 

Losh, George, 61. 

Lumley, Joseph, 42. 

Mackey, M., 86. 

Meyer's engraving of Bewick, 75. 

Mickley, 4, 10. 

Moral Instructions from a Father, 36. 



INDEX. 


103 


Morison, Messrs., 90. 


Smith, Dr. Robt., 15, 67. 




Murphy's portrait of Bewick, 73. 


Somerville's Chase, cuts for, 85. 




Murray, C. 0., 75. 


South Kensington Museum, 50. 




Natural History Museum, Newcastle, 44,49, 56. 


Spearman, Robt., 52. 
Spence, Thomas, 24, 25. 




Nesbit, C, 73, 9i- 


Spencer, Earl, 48, 50. 




Newburn, 26. 


St. George and the Dragon, cut of, 15. 




New Lottery Book of Birds and Beasts, 16. 


St. John's Church, Newcastle, 41. 




Newspaper cuts, 39. 


St. Nicholas' Church, Nesbit's cut of, 91. 




Nicholson, W., 64, 73, 74 ; Isaac, I06. 


St. Nicholas' Churchyard, Bewick's workshop 




Northcote's Fables, 92. 


in, 76. 




Ovingham, 4, 8, 26, 82. 


Stephens, F. G., 56, 57, 86. 
Strangeways, W. N., 99. 




Pearson, Edwin, 16, 38, 50, 67 ; Rev. E., 20, 
21, 38, 74. 


Summerfield, T., 73. 
Swarley's club, 41. 




Pease, J. W., 75- 
Penrith, 15, 27. 
Pocock, C. J., 51. 
Pollard, Robt., 28, 49, 50. 


Taylor, Isaac, 28, 29. , 
Temple, W. W., 72, loi. 
Thomson, D. C, 16, 37, 45, 50, 51, 69, 86, 91. 
Thorp, Archdeacon, 77. 




Quadrupeds, History of, 43 ; piracy of, by 


Thurston, John, 107. 

Tour through Sweden, Lapland, ^c, 52, 




Anderson, 106. 


Townsend, Rev. W. J., 32, 86 ; Rev. Geo., 50. 




Ramsay, J., portraits of Bewick, 73, 74 ; 


Tunstall, Marmaduke, 44, 4;, 49, 53. 




picture, "The Lost Child," 75. 


Vesey, M., 32. 




Reiveley, James, lol. 
Robinson, R., 41, 55. 


'■Waiting for Death," cut of, 81. 




Roger's Poems, Clennell's cuts to, 95. 


Walker, D., Hereford, 77. 




Rotheram, John, 52. 


Warren, Charles, 94. 




Ruskin, J., 55, 58. 


West, Benjamin, 95. 




Ryton Church, copperplate of, 77. 


White, Henry, lol. 

Whitley Large Ox, copperplate of, 52. 




Saint, Thomas, 15, 36. 


Willis, Edward, loi. 




1 Scholey's History of England, 94. 


W'ilson, Jane, 3, 4 ; Thomas, 3. 




Scotland, tour in, 27. 


Windmill Hills, Gateshead, 71. 




Scott's Border Antiquities, 95. 


Wingate, Richard, 87. 




Select Fables, 21, 36, 37, 38. 


Woollett engravings, 41, 




Shadforth, Whittaker, 25. 


Wycliffe, 44, 45, 52. 




Side, the, 11. 


Wylam, 26. 




Silvertop, George, 52. 






Simpson, John, 48, 54. 


Zouch, Rev. Thos., 53. 





104 


INDEX. 




INDEX.- 


-Part II. 






Adamson, John, 96. 


Ganganelli, Pope, 99. 






Anderson, Jas. C, 96 ; Matt., 97 : John, 97. 


Garesfield Colliery, 100. 






Assembly Rooms, Newcastle, 98. 


Garret, Wm., 95. 






.■\tkinson, G. C, 73, 91. 


Gregson, Rev. C, 70, 91. 






Baile)-, John, 94, 95, 96. 


Hall, Walter, & Co., 97. 






Baker, George, 73. 


Hood, Jabez, 100. 






Beilby, Ralph, 96, 99. 


Hugo, Rev. T., 73, 96. 






Bell, John, 73; Matthew, 95. 








Berwick Bank Notes, 94. 


Jarrow, 100. 






Bewick, John, 90; R. E., 96, 97, 98. 


Kinloch, Mr., 97. 






Blackett, J. Erasmus, 88 ; C, 100. 








Bhike, Sir Francis, 94. 


Mackey, M., S3, 94, 95. 






Bolam, Mr., 94. 


Mowbray, Arthur, 78. 






Brand, Rev. John, 96. 








Brockie, Wra., 99. 


Nesbit, Charlton, 90. 






Brown, T., 100. 


Northumberland Bank Notes, 94, 95. 






Burdon, W. W., 100. 








Bute, Marquis of, 100. 


Pearson, Edwin, 76; Rev. E., 97. 






Bywell Bay, 97. 


Pollard, Robert, 70, 92. 
Prior's Haven, 98. 






Carlisle Bank Notes, 94. 








Charnley, Wm,, 71, 92 ; Emerson, 93. 


Reay, Henry U., 95. 






Cheviot Ram, Witham, 95. 


Reed, .Archibald, 72, 93 ; Ale.x., 93 ; John, 


94- 




Chipchase Castle, 94. 


Ridley, Sir M. W., 99. 






Clark, G. N., 93. 








Clennell, L., 99. 


Smith, Mr. Woodhall, 95. 






CoUingvvood Crest, 97. 


Sykes, John, 93. 






Consitt, Rev. Provost, 99. 








Cowpen Colliery, 99. 


Ta3'lor, Isaac, 92. 






CuUey, Geo., 77, 96. 


Thomson, D C, 73> 87, 88, 91, 92, 94, 97 
Townsend, Rev. J. W., 93. 






Dobson, Austin, 87. 


Turner, Rev. Wm., 72, 93. 






Dodd, William, 93. 


Waggon and Horses, i, 73. 






kj^hton Moor, 100. 


Williams, T. A., 72, 93. 
Winterbottom, T. M., 98. 






Forster, Geo., Mayor, 98. 


Wylam Moor Colliery, 100. 






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Plate 1. 














From the Bewick Sale. 



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Plate XV, 










From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XVI. 




^vilJ Hiiid at 

FI.ACE i)AV UttrK 

.HoinJlfV _ o'CIoclv 

Tmsil/rv B? 

Ti;j,/,:i-J,n' 3>? 

'll/in\pJtT\' 3),ft 

Friday Di^ 

Siiiiinf^iv D? 



From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XVIl. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XVIII. 







From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XIX. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XX. 




^|S«i~ -J--;^^? -_-^'" 



From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXI. 







From the Bewick Sale. 



Pl.ATF XXII. 







From the Bewick Sale. 



Platk XX1]I. 




Frum the Bcwiik Sale. 



Pl.ATH XXIV, 







14" 



"!^. 






Kji(i . 



'/- /^'//V'/A^///' 



Sill I,- 'l\iif 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXV. 



, »■(> - 







From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXVI. 




3F KiXLocirs Bao^/ 



^ 



From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XX VII. 



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WjliH:]f»:i>tni;«-ji:: y 



-JjS?tJ«K\f\jj;d 



XH? 






'%^.^ f~ »3lJV,,§(^WIlM=^s,IQ)-m 







From the BLwkk Sale 



Plate XXVII 




Ofo: .i/-<>mtt->- J5y^, 



. ^j/i/i . ~f/i(/> /J( '/ fun 'X/>/ ' 

S a EMI IF T. 



IS 2,1 



From the Bewick Sale 



Platk XXIX. 






cm, 



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at 









From the Bewick Sale. 



L X I^ ^l.^V^V. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



X! 
A 

a 

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Plate XXXII. 



From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXXIII. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXXIV. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXXV. 




A\'ii-w ot'tlieKxpliHiiRVtVom tin- .S,-iii(Uii 



'£hc^'B^VCA.&TJ^AJ^lANAi:J%. rortlic Yoai- 1786 > 



From the Bewick Sale. 



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Plate XXXVII. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXXVIII. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XXXIX. 





T W^ N 





Fmrn the Bewick S.i 



J'/if/eXL. 




From tl 




K ale. 



Plate XLI. 




- J^eilhySc„/j.it 

Perinanliii-a tilii inia'iarvat niarmora"\n-tus, 
TemuiLS cdax, Cleiiieiis, luriin-etalreuciiuit. 



From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XLII 




CJLEMJE-^3 TJY. TOWS^.MA^. 



From the Bewick Sale. 



1 L^-\ 1 >\ *\. 1^ i i i . 







From the Bewick Sale. 



Plate XLIV. 




From the Bewick Sale. 



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Plate LII. 




&v^ac/y af^ l<^^^aa/y ,?'('/// rh'e) ^^f^/ 



f^// ' /^ /'////'/. 



From the Bewick Sale. 



Pl.ATK LI I 







From the Bewick Sale.